PSY 223 Assignment 1
Four major theories of human development are described, compared, and evaluated in Chapter 1. These are the psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Erikson; the behaviorism of Pavlov and Skinner and the social learning theory of Bandura; Piaget’s cognitive theory; and systems theories, including Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach and the dynamic-systems theory. Although each theories is too restricted to account solely for the tremendous diversity in human development, each has made an important contribution to developmental psychology.
To help clarify your understanding of the major developmental theories, this exercise asks you to focus on the similar, contradictory, and complementary aspects of the five theories.
· Which of the major developmental theories are stage theories? Which are not?
The stage theories are psychoanalytic theories of Freud and Erikson, and Piaget’s cognitive theory. Developmental theories that are not stage theories are the behaviorism of Pavlov and Skinner and the social learning theory of Bandura, and systems theories
· Which theories emphasize individual conscious organization of experience? Unconscious urges? Observable behavior? The interpretation of nature and nurture?
The sociocultural and cognitive theories emphasize individual conscious organization of experience. Unconscious urges are described by Freud in his psychoanalytic theory. Observable behavior is emphasized in Albert Bandura’s social learning theory. The interaction of nature and nurture is emphasized in social learning theories
· Which theories emphasize the impact of early experience on development?
· How does each theory view the child?
· How do the theories view adult development?
· Do the theories use the same methodology? How does each make use of the scientific method?
Please use complete sentences in forming your answers to each question. Submit through the assignments for grading.