• For the first part of the Discussion, define negative reinforcement in 1–2 sentences, and give an example of how negative reinforcement principles can be used to increase a desired behavior. A negative reinforcement contingency is one in which the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, which leads to an increase in the future occurrence of that response. In other words, negative reinforcement includes strengthening a behavior through the elimination of a stimulus which results in an increase for that behavior to occur (Cooper et al, 2007). An example of how negative reinforcement principles can be used to increase a desired behavior is how a person leaves their house earlier than normal on a Friday morning in an effort to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for their job, class, etc. • Next, describe classical conditioning.
CBT is a problem-solving/task-centered approach which recognizes and challenges illogical and faulty beliefs in an effort to change negative or destructive behavior. CBT combines elements of both cognitive and behavior therapy to track and modify the thoughts and behaviors of the client in order to increase desired behaviors and thoughts and to decrease undesired behaviors and thoughts while improving problem solving skills. The major goal of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is to alter unproductive behaviors and thought patterns in an effort to improve the perceived problem and undesired behaviors. Some of its general goals are to increase desired behaviors and thoughts, decrease undesirable behaviors and thoughts and improve problem solving skills. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is divided into three major phases.
UGC NET - PSYCHOLOGY PAPER II – UNIT 2 Instrumental Learning Operant conditioning - Introducation • Other names: instrumental learning or instrumental conditioning. • It is the study of how behavior is affected by its consequences. • Defn: Operant conditioning explains how voluntary responses are strengthened or weakened depending on positive or negative consequences. • In classical conditioning the original behavior is a natural biological response. • On the contrary, operant conditioning is applied on the behaviors that are voluntary.
Sensory discrimination was introduced to provide a mechanism linking intelligence to heredity. Galton believed that ancestral inheritance influences the development of the nervous system and that differences in the nervous system influence basic information processing abilities. Selye Selye believed that stress could be anything from prolonged food deprivation to the injection of a foreign substance into the body e.g. a drug to a
Skinner Article BEH/225 Christina LakeMan January 31, 2013 Skinner Article Skinner's contributions to psychology are vast, Skinner‘s theories explored ways that we learn and process stimuli in the environment. Through his research, Skinner discovered operant conditioning, which indicated that behavior, could be controlled by influence such as, punishments and rewards in the environment. His entire system revolved around operant conditioning, which has been defined as the modification of behavior by making the presence or absence of rewards or punishment contingent on behavior, also known as instrumental learning. “Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings (i.e.,
Rotter believed that a psychological theory should have a psychological motivational principal, and that people were motivated to seek out positive reinforcement or stimulus and to avoid the negative of either. (Mearns). His publication Social Learning in Clinical Society (1954) integrated the concepts of this learning theory with the personality theory. Overall Rotter’s social learning theory suggests that behavior is influenced by social context or environmental factors, and not psychological factors alone. In the 1960’s Albert Bandura expanded on
Stimulus response in our everyday life: Use of classical conditioning Stimulus is referred to the action or change that invokes a certain response. Usually this stimulus response theory is referred as classical conditioning. Classical conditioning theory was first discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Marketers often capitalize and use this tool to invoke their desired action from the consumer end.
Erin Goldsmith Unit 8 - Psychological Perspectives Task 1 P1, M1 20050665 Sam Adams The Behaviourist Perspective The behaviourist approach is based on the concept of explaining behavior through observations, and the belief that the environment around us is what causes us to behave in different ways. The behaviourist perspective was a dominant approach in psychology for the first half of the 20th century. The main assumption of the behaviourist perspective is that all behaviour is learnt and is shaped by the environment. The behaviourist approach tries to understand human behaviour in terms of what has been learnt. Behaviourists regard all behaviour as a response to a stimulus.
Outline and evaluate Behaviourist explanations of abnormality The behavioural model focuses on the idea that abnormal behaviour, and indeed all behaviour, is learnt from observing ones environment. For example in the case of a phobia, babies are born with the build in fear of loud noises, however fear of a stimulus such a spider is not a predestined fear and therefore must have been triggered from a learned response to that stimulus. This is known as classical conditioning. An example of a study done into classical conditioning is the ‘Little Albert’ experiment carried out by John B. Watson. In the experiment Watson took a young baby who did not have any fears, and placed him with animals that people commonly have phobias of.
Operant conditioning plays a major role in behavioral modification. It can lead to desirable behavior or behavior that yields desirable consequences. These can range from a child learning responsibility to social acceptance leading an individual to smoke or do drugs to fit in. * * THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING. * * The theory of operant conditioning is a term the B.F Skinner coined in 1938.