For example, one psychologist may use descriptive psychopathology to which will strive to provide answers for symptoms or mental illness. Either way, psychopathology is formally used to study mental illness or the distresses which may be affecting an individual. The issues of the abnormal psychology will assist in the study by the way we would use it in the attempt to capture interest, trigger concerns, and demands our attention. It also brings us to form and ask certain questions pertaining to any study. Psychopathology is not the same as psychopathy, which has to do with antisocial
Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterised by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible and are associated with significant distress or disability.  The definitions may vary some according to other sources.  Official criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the diagnostic manual of
It is a generalised concept that if the cause of the symptoms were tackled it would only be logical that the symptoms would then cease. The Psychodynamic theory assumes the personality is split into three parts, the id (most primitive, instinctive part we have from birth), the ego (logical, balances out the id and superego) and the superego or moral part of our personality. These areas influence our behaviour as well as the defence mechanisms of the ego, and the psychosexual stages of development. Defence mechanisms are used
Unfamiliar is not the same as abnormal, distinction between these two is vital to understanding psychopathology and those affected by mental illness. As abnormal psychology evolves and progresses in treatments, therapies, and research the central theme of the six core concepts continues to guide researcher. These six concepts define and provide understanding of abnormality. The concepts also illustrate the range between normal and abnormal behavior of individuals experiencing personality disorders. Another concept is studying cultural and historical relativism in defining and classifying abnormality in relation to environment.
The concept of Locus of control which was made by Rotter in 1966 refers to individual differences in people’s beliefs and expectations about what controls events in their lives. There are two extremes: internal locus which is the belief that what happens is largely under one’s own control (associated with the belief that one can control much of one’s life and succeed in stressful or difficult situations). The other extreme is external locus which is the belief that what happens to one is controlled by external factors such as luck and fate (associated with the tendency to face stressful situations with a more passive and fatalistic attitude). There are a few studies that have looked at the relationship between locus of control and independent versus obedient behaviour. Holland in 1967 investigated this relationship when he ran various variations of Milgram’s procedure.
Emma Culloty BIRMI2A 11 Evaluate the extent to which Freud’s theory of psychosexual development can help us to understand a Client’s presenting issue. Freud’s theory of psychosexual development is a theory that has caused a large amount of debate and can be seen as quite a contentious issue, particularly when using this theory to try and understand a client’s presenting issue. This essay will look into Freud’s psychosexual theory and will describe how it relates to adult neurotic behaviour. The essay will then look at the critiques of Carl Jung and Erich Fromm and will look at the ideas surrounding Jung’s collective consciousness and Fromm’s view based on a sociological perspective, where the person is able to decide for them and how problems can arise for a client when this does not happen. This essay will also look at the role of women and homosexuality and discuss whether Freud’s views where based on a cultural prejudice when he devised the psychosexual theory.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was created to help measure the needs for power, intimacy, and achievement in regards to motivation. The motivational view I agree with the least is the psychoanalytic view. “The psychoanalytic view of human motivation suggests that behavior is ultimately determined by unconscious sexual and aggressive drives and by the complex intrapsychic conflicts that arise in daily life.” (Pinel, J.P.J. 2008. p. 299). Freud had some beliefs that I believe have been outdated and further researched since his time.
Why do some people object to the term ‘mental illness’? To understand the complexity of the term ‘mental illness’, it is necessary to explore a diverse range of perspectives on varying topics that often arise within the ‘world’ of mental health. Using the elements of the K225 course model as a basis for exploration, this essay shall aim to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the individual experiences that could lead to possible reasons why, some people may not be in favour of the term ‘mental illness’. (Unit 1, p.19). The ‘world’ of mental health briefly consists of people, services, policy, and legislation.
Running head: Personality Theories Personality Theories PSY/211 Personality Theories The existence of personality theories correspond to how scholars analyze and assess the development of human identity and behavior. Each viewpoint provides a specific understanding of what cultivates personality and the corresponding factors that influence such behavior. One way to analyze personality is through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. The main argument of this theory is that problems or issues pertaining to psychology can be rooted to one’s unconscious (McLeod, 2007). Specifically, the problems are influenced by latent issues surfacing in the conscious mind.
Cross-cultural psychology studies the relations between cultural standards and behavior and also in the manner how certain activities influence individuals by dissimilar cultural forces (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). According to Bhugra & Kalra (2010), “Cross cultural diagnosis involves various theoretical considerations as diagnostic categories, pathoplasticity of psychiatric disorder, and differential reporting of symptoms and expression of signs from one cultural group to another” (pg. 51). Cross-cultural psychology studies the interactions between cultures, defines their differences, and determines commonalities and psychological commonalities between them. The studies concentrate