Motivation and emotions are unmistakably related impressions for three reasons - because both motives and the stimulation of emotion trigger behavior, motives are often associated with emotions, and emotions usually have motivational qualities of their own. Emotion effects motivation because when we concentrate on an emotion we also concentrate on the incentives that initiated it. This, in turn, motivates our actions in a mixture of ways. Part II: Theories of Emotion Summarize the four major theories of emotion. Identify which theory you think is the most valid.
Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21). “The psychoanalytical theory views personality as biologically based, relatively unchangeable and determined by the need to control sexual and aggressive instincts which are unconscious in nature” (Rust & Golombok, 1989, 131). Sigmund Freud was the founder of the psychoanalytical approach to personality although many academics have expounded on his research since then (Bernstein, 2001; 125). This contrasts with the humanistic theory which was adopted by leading 20th Century psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Nicholas, 2008; 226). Robert Ewen suggests that
Marx believes differently than Freud, in the sense that the desire for freedom and pleasure is attainable if there isn't someone telling society that they can't attain those goals The follow is essay will highlight the arguments of Freud's Civilization and It's Discontents and as well For Carl Marx's Marx/ Engels Reader. This paper will discuss the theorist and see which one sounds more convincing. A brief synopsis of Freud's book Civilization and It's Discontents will better support his claim that it is impossible to achieve ultimate satisfaction. He he opens up the book with the pleasure principle and the reality principle. Through these principles humans are able to distinguish between realities that are imaginable or attainable.
Within this framework of motivational process, Bandura focuses on three separate theories, which cause motivation including “attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, and goal theory”. In attribution theory, ones sees successes and failures as a result of his or her personal behavior. Expectancy –value theory originates from the concept that people’s actions are motivated by their belief of what they think that they are capable of achieving, and the belief that their actions will produce the outcome that they expected. In the concept of goal theory, Bandura shows that people “seek self-satisfaction from valued goal”. This theory stresses that people will work more diligently when a goal is set for them to obtain.
Romando Alexander COM-231 April 28, 2013 Grace Wenching Liao-Duffy Module 2 – Cognitive Dissonance Essay The theory of cognitive dissonance is a theory coined by social psychologist Leon Festinger. The theory suggests that individuals have an intrapersonal drive to hold their actions, beliefs and attitudes in harmony while avoiding dissonance or disharmony. The dissonance or disharmony occurs when a situation causes a conflict between the actions, beliefs, and attitudes of the individual and produces a feeling of discomfort. Discomfort leads the individual to alter one of the actions, behaviors, or attitudes to restore balance and reduce discomfort (McLeod, 2008). The theory of cognitive dissonance can be relative in a various ways when applied to use.
Individuals do this to make the pain go away which ultimately they really just defense mechanisms (Gottdiener, Murawski, & Kucharski, 2008). “According to psychoanalytic conflict theory, defense mechanisms are activated when the individual experiences any form of displeasure, especially anxiety or depressive affect” (Brenner, 1982). Failures of ego control are related to individuals with substance use disorders. “Ego control refers to the efforts of the individual to control thoughts, emotions, impulses and ability to perform tasks and attention processes” (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004, p. 2). The article also addresses the result of consistent failures in ego control.
Another theme with Freud’s work concerned the unconscious mind, the part of our mind we are not aware of. He believed that the unconscious contain unresolved conflicts and has a powerful effect on our behaviour and experience. He argued that these conflicts will show themselves in our dreams and fantasies, and that threatening conflicts can appear in disguised forms, in the shape of symbols. Freud advanced a theory of personality development that centred on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual psyche. He argued that there are particular points in the development process, arguing that a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation.
There are different theories established by psychologists, which explain where personality originates. The highly important individual who played a role in the psychoanalysis theory was Sigmund Freud. Freud believed an individual’s personality was influenced by the unconscious, which there is no way to control. He based understanding of personality on analysis of patient’s dreams as well as his own dreams. Adler theorized that personality was motivated by the influence of society and fighting for triumph.
The idea behind this was to use 'talking therapy' to bring past memories from the unconscious to the conscious. The unconscious is when you are doing or thinking something without being alert or aware that you are doing it. Along the idea of the unconscious Freud also developed the concept of the ID, the Ego and the Superego. The id is described as an impulsive, selfish side to our personality which is ruled by a pleasure principle, the superego is the moral part of our personality which recognises right from wrong; and our ego is the part of our mind which tries to rationalise and arbitrate both sides of our thoughts. Freud believed that there were two main causes of abnormality in general.
Jung promoted the concept of archetypes, and Adler believed in the “will power” theory and that fundamentally, human beings are self- determined (“Theoretical Positions of Freud, Jung, and Adler,” n.d.). Freud is big on self-conscious, Jung said “the aim of life to know oneself, and to know one is to examine the depths of the unclear seas of not only the personal unconscious as well.” Adler stated that “individual psychology based on the idea of the indivisibility of one’s personality” (“Notable Quotes,” n.d.). The two characteristics that I agree with the most would be the psychoanalytic theory and the learning theory. I chose the psychoanalytic theory because it is natural and normal for people to have thoughts, feelings, and urges. Just like Freud said “at the same time we are only human and we cannot control what only comes naturally.