Personality and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: a Meta-Analysis

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Journal of Applied Psychology 2004, Vol. 89, No. 5, 901–910 Copyright 2004 by the American Psychological Association 0021-9010/04/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.901 Personality and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis Joyce E. Bono University of Minnesota Timothy A. Judge University of Florida This study was a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and ratings of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. Using the 5-factor model of personality as an organizing framework, the authors accumulated 384 correlations from 26 independent studies. Personality traits were related to 3 dimensions of transformational leadership—idealized influence–inspirational motivation (charisma), intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration—and 3 dimensions of transactional leadership— contingent reward, management by exception–active, and passive leadership. Extraversion was the strongest and most consistent correlate of transformational leadership. Although results provided some support for the dispositional basis of transformational leadership— especially with respect to the charisma dimension— generally, weak associations suggested the importance of future research to focus on both narrower personality traits and nondispositional determinants of transformational and transactional leadership. A recent PsycINFO search revealed that 1,738 of the 15,000 articles (12%) published since 1990 on the topic of leadership included the keywords personality and leadership. Clearly, scholars have a strong and continuing interest in the dispositional bases of leadership behavior. Indeed, a meta-analysis by Lord, DeVader, and Alliger (1986) reported some associations between personality traits and perceptions of leadership. A more recent meta-analysis (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002) further advanced this

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