When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive Therapy helps people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving which reduce the psychological distress. Cognitive behavioral Therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements. Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s.
However, this also means that the patients will have to show more of the desired behaviour in order to receive the reward. The desired behaviours are asses by the staff that work with the patients on the wards and they decide whether or not, if the patient deserves a reward, or has shown the correct behaviour to be eligible to get that token. Staff may also take away tokens if they wish to punish certain behaviours. As a result of this, there should be an increase in the desired behaviour in those who have the mental disorders. The effectiveness of the TEPs have been shown by many psychologist such as Zimbardo who used long term inpatients and saw that there was an increase in the targeted behaviours in the institution, however, the improvements disappeared after the patient was discharged which shows that TEPs may not be as effective when treating patients when they come out of institutions such as hospitals.
| Counter-Transference when dealing with ‘Morally Objectionable’ and Hateful patients | | Lior TalPsychological Skills CourseDr. Eve Lischner-FreudIDC Herzeliya | 16/02/2014 | | | Counter-transference is defined by Merriam-Webster as a psychological transference, especially by a psychotherapist, during the course of treatment; the psychotherapist's reactions to the patient's transference, and the complex of feelings of a psychotherapist toward the patient (Merriam-Webster, 2012). The APA defines countertransference as the conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment (APA, 2012). The feelings that arise from counter-transference are as real as the feelings that arise from the ‘real-self’. They are genuine feelings based on the self's interactions with the environment and the people in it, at different points in time.
A person of both positive and negative feelings and impulses. To be empathic and to understand the persons thoughts feelings and struggles from their own point of view and to adopt the persons frame of mind. Also to be congruent genuine real and authentic in the relationship. Not to be judgemental but be supportive to help the person rediscover themselves. In all to avoid diagnosis, treatment plans and other methods that reflect the medical models of mental illness.
Individuals do this to make the pain go away which ultimately they really just defense mechanisms (Gottdiener, Murawski, & Kucharski, 2008). “According to psychoanalytic conflict theory, defense mechanisms are activated when the individual experiences any form of displeasure, especially anxiety or depressive affect” (Brenner, 1982). Failures of ego control are related to individuals with substance use disorders. “Ego control refers to the efforts of the individual to control thoughts, emotions, impulses and ability to perform tasks and attention processes” (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004, p. 2). The article also addresses the result of consistent failures in ego control.
Cognitive behavior therapy is based on the belief that people are born with the ability to have rational and irrational thinking, and it helps clients to accept themselves and their mistakes. They teach the client that they will continue to make mistakes and is a normal part of life. However, the psychoanalytic theory is inconsistent with these views because it is rooted in the belief that our behavior is determined by unconscious forces. Also, that sexual and death instincts are the sources of our actions and our motivation for pleasure and pain. b.)
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a psychosocial intervention, which works on the basis that it is our thought process that determines our behaviour. Hence, psychosocial interventions include assessment of client’s needs, together with appropriate therapy possibly cognitive behavioural therapy, coping mechanisms, and training regarding how to solve problems. Unfortunately, in my opinion psychosocial interventions may be disregarded by the medical professionals due to a misunderstanding on their behalf that psychosocial interventions are too time consuming, and thus, the medical professionals may tend to favour medication as a means to reducing a patient’s symptoms. It is my belief that medication is a short term remedy, rather than being a permanent solution to a person’s anxiety disorder. As a result, of a person taking medication a person may become dependent on the medication,
Jordaan (2013) explains that psychosis refers to a cluster of symptoms, among these disruptions in moods, thoughts, perception, language and behaviour. Jordaan goes on to say that Schizophrenia is the most common psychotic disorder with psychosis being the primary and central set of symptoms, although not all symptoms present in all people. These symptoms can be categorised as positive (active symptoms) and negative symptoms (absence or decline of normal functions) (Jordaan,
I think there are many reasons why a personalised induction is more effective. Firstly, I think it is very important to ascertain the mental health of the individual. A Hypnotherapist must never work on anyone who has or has had a psychosis. If an individual is on any kind of psychological medication or has a history of mental health, then the hypnotherapist will need to get written permission from the individual’s Dr to carry out any therapy. This letter must also state that the patient is not psychotic.
This is because they would enable a decision about whether clinical intervention may be needed Furthermore a weakness of ideal mental health is mental illnesses cannot be defined in the same way as physical illnesses. A physical illness will have physical causes e.g. virus or bacterial infection which are easy to diagnose. However