Further still, I will discuss the differences between the theories that see the patient’s behavior as coming from patients mind alone versus the theories that see the patient as reacting to his/her environment. Lastly I will describe the concepts and give the vignette that explains how the Kohut theory works. Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory was first developed by Sigmund Feud and refers to the dynamics of personality development (Asch. M, 2004) He had interacted so much with mentally ill patients and through a series of close examination of his patients; he came to discover that human behaviors are controlled by the unconscious desires. He also linked some childhood desires with the development of ones personality.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can be used to treat people with a wide range of mental health problems. CBT is based on the idea that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behavior) all interact together. Specifically, our thoughts determine our feelings and our behavior. Therefore, negative - and unrealistic - thoughts can cause us distress and result in problems. When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take.
(Salkovskis, 2010) explains how cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) combines elements of cognitive and behavioural theories. Whereby the cause of distress is recognised in behaviourist terms ‘learned helplessness’ or ‘lack of positive reinforcement’ (Seligman et al, 1974) in conjunction with (Beck et al., 1976) cognitive theory of emotion. Roots of behaviour therapy lie in learning theories. Wolfe (1958) described a treatment called 'systematic desensitisation' involving the gradual introduction of increasing intense phobic stimuli, whilst offering sustained relaxation. This then evolved into 'graded exposure' involving the therapist encouraging the client to face their fears until they eradicate them.
Dr Aaron T. Beck Aaron T. Beck started training as psychoanalysis alongside Albert Ellis. Beck researched depression under the psychoanalytical with the understanding that depression stemmed from anger turned against oneself. Although Beck began his work in the area of depression, latterly he had begun to work with Borderline Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia (Ridgway, 2005). Beck said that negative automatic thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs, were the cause of depressive symptoms, and not vice versa. The main argument that Beck had was that depression started by the view one’s self image, instead of one having a negative view of them because of depression (Allen, 2003).
Additionally, it will discuss definition of severe mental illness and why it is hard to define on a single definition and how it is being assessed for appropriate management and treatment. It will further analyse how stress and vulnerability model help the therapist and patient understand the onset symptoms of schizophrenia. Furthermore, it will examine the role of CBT in reducing the impact of positive symptoms to the patient. Moreover, it will discuss the criticisms on the effectiveness of CBT and how the proponents answered these criticisms. Lastly, it will analyse CBT’s implications to practice in mental health nursing.
Modern cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was developed independently by two separate individuals: Aaron Beck, a psychiatrist, and Albert Ellis, a clinical psychologist. Both Beck and Ellis began working on their versions of the therapy in and around the late 1950s and early 60s. Both versions of the therapy are founded on the single basic idea that cognition, in the form of thoughts and preconceived judgments, precedes and determines people's emotional responses. In other words, what people think about an event that has occurred determines how they will feel about that event. Depression happens because people develop a disposition to view situations and circumstances in habitually negative and biased ways, leading them to habitually experience negative feelings and emotions as a result.
There are three main approaches to counselling and psychotherapy. These are cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), person-centred therapy (PCT) and psychodynamic or psychoanalytic therapy (PDT). Each incorporates a variety of techniques and is distinct from each other in terms of their interventions and assumptions about the nature and sources of psychopathology. The Psychodynamic Approach (Originator: Sigmund Freud 1856 – 1939) PDT focuses on ways in which the unconscious impacts upon how people function (Freud, 1933). Freud believed that the unconscious is a component of the mind that the individual is unaware of, but which manifests through behaviour: “infantile wishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden from consciousness awareness because of the conflicts and pain they would cause if they were part of everyday life” (Feldman, 1993, p. 381).
The psychodynamic theory maintains that abnormal behavior patterns are symptomatic of some underlying mental disorder or illness. In the psychodynamic hypothesis, the development of mental disorders involves sexual and/or aggressive fears that have been repressed because of intra-psychic conflict. Because these conflicts are too painful or terrifying to endure, they are kept from consciousness through various defense mechanisms. This happens because the ego displaces the true source of this suppressed danger by substituting an external threat that can easily be detected. According to Freud, the originally repressed fears may go back far into childhood.
Part A Compare and contrast how the person-centred and psychodynamic models of counselling understand the person, and how the two approaches explain psychological distress experienced by individuals. Counselling means different things to different people, the majority of people see it as their only option when things are not going as they planned and chose the model that they feel suits them best. There are three main models of counselling; Psychodynamic, Cognitive behavioural and person-centred. In this essay I will examine the similarities and differences between the psychodynamic and person-centred approach. The psychodynamic approach to counselling is based on the psychoanalytic theories and practice of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), (McLeod, 2008a).
The idea behind this was to use 'talking therapy' to bring past memories from the unconscious to the conscious. The unconscious is when you are doing or thinking something without being alert or aware that you are doing it. Along the idea of the unconscious Freud also developed the concept of the ID, the Ego and the Superego. The id is described as an impulsive, selfish side to our personality which is ruled by a pleasure principle, the superego is the moral part of our personality which recognises right from wrong; and our ego is the part of our mind which tries to rationalise and arbitrate both sides of our thoughts. Freud believed that there were two main causes of abnormality in general.