It assumes that human problems come from operating on faulty, irrational beliefs. Some of these beliefs are conscious but many are not. Behavior Theory suggests that human actions are the results of what we have learned or been conditioned to do and that when these actions are reinforced consistently, by either reward or punishment, they become the basis of functioning in our lives. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy recognizes that thoughts and behaviors are connected and addresses both in its model. CBT is a problem-solving/task-centered approach which recognizes and challenges illogical and faulty beliefs in an effort to change negative or destructive behavior.
Discuss principles of reinforcement and punishment in your response. Operant conditioning is the process in which a human or non-human learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces desired outcomes rather than negative experiences. The central principles of operant conditioning include reinforcement, punishment and extinction that can then be further defined into finer categories. The principle of reinforcement is a consequence that causes behaviour to occur with greater frequency. Positive reinforcement is where behaviour is rewarded (whether intended or not) which will increase the probability of reoccurrence of that behaviour.
Consequential is a type of ethical theory; it’s built upon moral views of acts, rules, etc. purely due to the consideration of their consequences, where the norm of consideration is worked as the norm of non-moral goodness. Happiness is a part of acquiring what could be an unsatisfying truth that we do not have a solid handle of our control or impact in our world; giving into the greatest good, as well as, ignoring what can bring negativity. It is important to make the best out of life as possible that represent positive and negative, and take the rest as life wants to give it. The theory of “good” and bad is really not a matter of concern; we have our own particular views, so what can be bad may actually be good.
Reinforcement is known as the main principle of the operant conditioning. Two forms of consequences are known as reinforcement and punishment. They can be negative or positive. Receiving a treat for good behavior is the primary positive reinforcement that will involve the introduction to a stimulus. This will help to increase the chance of good behavior.
In 1941 N.E Miller and associate J. Dollard proposed that one could learn a behavior by observing that behavior in others. They called this theory social learning. The social learning theory of Miller and Dollard also stated that “by imitating these observed actions the individual observer would solidify that learned action and would be rewarded with positive reinforcement.”(Green) Loosely translated this means that if we ape the actions of those around us they will reward us for such actions. In 1954 Julian Rotter broke away from the then popular instinct based psychoanalysis and drive based behaviorism theories. Rotter believed that a psychological theory should have a psychological motivational principal, and that people were motivated to seek out positive reinforcement or stimulus and to avoid the negative of either.
There are two key terms to Skinner’s ‘operant conditioning’ approach these are, negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is strengthening behaviour by removing an unpleasant stimulus. Many people get confused between a negative reinforcement with a ‘punishment’. Reinforcement and a ‘punishment’ are two different things. This is because reinforcement is done so that the behaviour occurs more, but punishments are given to decrease certain behaviour.
Thorndike was the first psychologist to research Operant Conditioning. He believed that if something had a pleasant consequence then the action or behaviour is more than likely to be repeated. On the other hand if something has an unpleasant consequence it will not be repeated. Classical conditioning involves learning associating between events that occur in an environment. All learning can be shown and explained via – stimulus – response.
| What are the three principles of operant conditioning and explain them? Shaping- An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior (Reinforcements =guide to desired behavior) Positive Reinforcements- Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. Negative Reinforcements- Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response ( negative reinforcements are not punishments) Punishment- an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
Then in 1921, John Watson had expanded Pavlov’s research and began to study humans, his first testing was the little Albert experiment. Watson’s purpose of the Little Albert experiment was to see if he could condition the infant to fear an animal. Classical conditioning is considered to be an automatic or reflexive form of learning. Classical Conditioning can be defined as a learning technique that takes place when two stimuli are continuously placed together causing a response which originally bought about the following stimulus is ultimately drawn out due to the initial stimulus (Olson, Hergenhahn, 2013). There are four elements that are associated with classical conditioning.
REALITY THERAPY As the field of psychology evolved in the twentieth century, theorists examined the possibility of feelings, emotions and thoughts influencing an individual’s behaviour, and as a result a number of alternative approaches to therapy evolved. Behavioural theorists asserted that a person is the “producer and the product of his or her environment” (Corey, 2009, p. 237), whilst cognitive therapy incorporated the effect of the client’s belief systems and thinking in determining behaviour and emotional responses. Classic behavioural models were eventually greatly affected by cognitive psychology, and cognitive schools took on behavioural components, resulting in a merged cognitive behavioural method of approach. In its practical, directive and thought based approach, Reality therapy, based on research by William Glasser in the 1950’s, conforms to the cognitive behavioural school of thought and will be illustrated in this essay. Theory and techniques will be applied through the window of the case study of John, in an effort to demonstrate the effectiveness of this model in strengthening an individual’s internal sense of control, thereby changing behaviour.