This is more likely if the behaviour is positively reinforced. The other way is through indirect experience; this is when an individual learns behaviour to imitate, which is based on reinforcements that they see others receiving. An example of this would be if we see someone being punished for aggression we are not likely to copy it. If we see someone praised we may be more likely to imitate them. This theory acknowledges that there are some cognitive elements to being able to observe and imitate behaviours.
This is vicarious reinforcement. A child forms a mental representation of an event, including the possible rewards or punishments of the behaviour. When a child imitates an aggressive behaviour, they gain direct experience, and the outcome of the behaviour influences the value of aggression for the child. If they are rewarded they are more likely to repeat the behaviour. Children develop self-efficacy, which is confidence in their ability to successful carry out a behaviour.
Explain different psychological approaches to health practices. There are many different psychological applications to health and social care. According to the behaviourist approach; our behaviour can be changed or improved. The theorist skinner believed that positive reinforcement worked by rewarding the desired behaviour, the behaviour would be improved he did not believe in punishment. Skinner believed that positive reinforcement should be immediate to ensure the effect on the behaviour so children associate the positive reward with good behaviour.
Identifying triggers connected to unacceptable behaviour is important in managing and modifying the behaviour of a child. When looking at behaviour, both acceptable and unacceptable, one must view the child as a whole and take into account factors such as the environment and culture into which he is born and lives. For instance, in some cultures it would be disrespectful for a child to make eye contact to an adult in authority, or to speak to them, without being invited to do so. Conversely, in our own culture, eye contact is considered so important that it a yardstick of normative
Aggression is an action or series of actions where the aim is to cause harm to another person or object. Social learning theory states that aggressive behaviour is learned directly (operant conditioning) and indirectly (vicarious). For example, if someone gets something they want when they’re aggressive the action will be reinforced therefore likely to be repeated. And if a person sees their role model rewarded for an aggressive action the observer is likely to imitate that model. The model is most likely to be imitated if: the model is similar to the observer, the model is admired and/or the observer as low self-esteem.
From these models, children therefore learn about the nature of aggressive behaviour, the situations where it is appropriate and its likely consequences. In addition, although aggressive behaviour is learned by either direct or vicarious reinforcement, whether it is produced or not is determined by an individual’s expectation of reward and confidence in their ability to use it effectively (self-efficacy). Bandura (1986) claimed that for social learning to take place, individuals must be able to form a mental representation of the aggressive behaviour and the anticipated rewards or punishments that might be associated with it. In the future, if an appropriate opportunity arises, the individual will produce the aggressive behaviour, provided the expectation of reward is greater than the expectation of punishment. Social learning theorists suggest that children learn their aggressive behaviour from aggressive models on TV, who essentially become a source of the ‘scripts’ that guide the child’s own behaviour.
Social learning theory (SLT) explains that aggression is learnt through observing aggressive behaviour and according to Bandura (19655); aggressive behaviour is learned through either directly or vicariously. Learning through direct experience can be described through the principle of operant conditioning where, for example, if an individual acts aggressively and therefore get what they want, and then this would in turn reinforce the action thus increasing the frequency it would occur in a similar situation. However, vicariously learning a behaviour would occur when an individual is exposed to aggressive behaviour, for example, through a role model for children which would lead to an imitation of the behaviour. Furthermore, the role of rewards on the imitation of aggressive behaviour is emphasised in this theory because it must be constantly reinforced and therefore appear rewarding for it to occur. There’s four factors which control the probability of aggressive behaviour: 1) Previous experiences of aggressive behaviour of the individual and of others 2) the degree of success of past aggressive behaviour 3) the likelihood of aggressive behaviour being rewarded or punished and 4) social, environmental and cognitive factors which would be operating simultaneously.
The Social Learning theory proposes that the cause of all aggressive behaviour is due to interactions with others in our social world. According to social learning theorists such as Bandura, aggressive behaviour is learned in either one of 2 ways, by direct experience which is based on operant conditioning or by vicarious (indirect) experience which is based on observational learning. Operant conditioning is for example, when a child pushes another child and, as a result, gets something they want; the action is then reinforced and is likely to occur in similar situations in the future. However observational learning is when a child sees a role model behaving in a particular way and imitates the behaviour of the model. It is thought that most aggression is learnt by observational learning, usually from those who are of a big significance to us.
The article, “Recess Makes for Better Students,” tries to exemplify the effects of recess on elementary students by explaining how Romina M. Barros examined the effects of recess on children through her research and found that recess is essential to a child’s behavior and academics. “Recess Makes For Better Students” also mentions how another specialist, Dr. Jane Ripperger-Suhler, explains how recess is very important to a child’s mental and social development. On the other hand, the cartoon the author illustrated has two young children, one boy and one girl. The girl mentions, “I want to be a lawyer – they still get recess,” so they are probably talking about their future, while sitting on a swing set. Amanda Gardner, the author of “Recess Makes for Better Students,” and Matt Anderson, a cartoonist, both refute that recess is an essential part of a child’s life using different methods to convey their position of the argument.
Promoting Positive Behaviour There are different qualities that are needed when promoting positive behaviour; these can involve anything from working to the code of practice, using the knowledge from behaviour management plans, Using frameworks such as team teach and, when necessary and risk assessments if involved in any activity. There are also some other approaches that you could consider, these are • BEHAVOURIST APPROACH, This is when you offer rewards for acceptable behaviour and sanctions for unacceptable behaviour, for example the reward could be allowing the child to listen to the music and the sanction could be no music until you stop shouting .It’s said that the positive discipline can motivate the children to change their behaviour, in some children this could be due to them being competitive and they respond to the incentive. For others it might be due to the praise and recognition that’s given which helps motivate them. There is evidence to show that this works with the incentives in Place but any changes in the behaviour will need to be maintained and built on. • COGNITIVIST APPROACH, the cognitive approach centres around the theory that how you think affects the things you do, hence the best way to approach this within my role is to provide the child with tools to help them to respond to the triggers that affect their behaviour.