Stage 1 is attention, the observer pays attention to the model, stage 2 is memory, this is an effect of how much attention was given to the models behaviour, if the observer remembers the behaviour enough then the behaviour will be recalled, the observer also assesses their own ability and asked themselves if they are capable of carrying out that particular behaviour. Finally the observer is more likely to imitate if they are vaciourusaly reinforced, this is when the model is seen to receive a reward for their behaviour. Some behaviours may not be imitated this is because of vacirous punishment. The observer may see the model being punished for their behaviour and will therefore not imitate it, as they wish to avoid being in trouble. Behaviour is more likely to be repeated if it is rewarded by someone usually a parent, or
Discuss one social psychological theory of aggression One social psychological explanation of aggression is the social learning theory which is the idea that we learn certain behaviours through observing others this has been proposed by Albert Bandura. He believes that there is a process we all go through before repeating a behaviour we have learned, this is when mental representation comes into play, whether the observer sees the behaviour as being right or wrong, if the behaviour is rewarded it is seen as vicarious reinforcement and enhances the chances of the behaviour being repeated however if the behaviour is punished the chances of it being repeated is slim. Bandura believes the modelling process consists of four stages that enhance the repetition of the observed behaviour, such as attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. The observer needs to have full attention on the behaviour being acted out if they do this they will be able to go through the stage of retention, allowing them to store the information and later being able to reproduce the behaviour being learned. If the behaviour concluded in positive reinforcement you are more likely to have the motivation to repeat it rather than suppress it.
The cognitive theory tries to explain human behaviour though trying to understand the thought processes. It assumes that people make the choices that make the most sense to them. The social learning theory pays attention to learning that happens within a social context. It suggests that people learn from each other. It includes such things as imitation and observational learning.
Into this world with these characteristics built genetically in us? When it comes to Psychopaths and their crazy tendencies, they are affected by society to make them who they are. Since a very young age, when humans are still developing and are not considered mature yet, people around them and what they interact with drastically changes their behavior. For example, Ted Bundy, a well-known murderer and rapist who approximately killed 30 women in his life, has admitted on an interview before he was killed that his childhood may have had an effect to him. “He said that the ‘hard-core’ pornography that he was exposed to could take responsibility for the murders.
Outline one Social Psychological Theory of Aggression Aggression is the intent to harm someone through verbal or physical actions. Bandura was the founder of Social Learning Theory (SLT) which suggests that children learn aggressive behaviour by observing other’s acting aggressively. They learn through either direct reinforcement, where the individual themselves are rewarded or punished for their own behaviour, or through watching others being rewarded or punished for their aggressive acts, (vicarious reinforcement). As a result, aggressive behaviour may repeat if a child receives a reward or witnesses a role model getting positively reinforced after committing an aggressive act and consequently imitates this behaviour to also seek the reward. SLT is supported by Bandura et al (1963), who found that children who observed an adult role model behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll were more likely to reproduce these behaviours when later allowed to interact with the doll alone, children even improvised their own violent methods towards the doll.
Aggression refers to behaviours that can result in both physical and psychological harm to one self, others or objects in the environment. It can be socially explained using the Social Learning Theory, which suggest that we learn behaviours, including aggression, by imitating successful role models. Therefore it is possible to learn aggression through Operant or Classical conditioning. The theory also suggests that observational learning can also take place, and that this is reinforced vicariously. Vicarious learning or reinforcement occurs when one sees another person rewards for certain actions.
Firstly, Carless argues that the use of MT may have positive and negative effects on second language acquisition. Positive effects seem to “serve social and cognitive functions, including the construction of scaffolded assistance and create through collaborative dialogue the opportunity for language acquisition to take place.” In fact, through group works, in which students do not need to speak in English all the time, they can elaborate hypothesis or predictions about the TL in their own language, serving as a base to produce a significative output. On the other hand, negative effects seem to “undermine the psycholinguistic rationale for task-based interaction as stretching student interlanguage through the process of engaging
This is the communicator reward valence. It delays people’s reaction to unexpected behavior because expectancies are based on the communicator’s social norms and their exact characteristics. Violations of expectancies cause provocation and require the receiver to invite a series of rational thoughts or evaluation of the violation, as well as causing uncertainty in people’s behavior. EVT is a valuable theory because it gives a way to join behavior and reasoning. It is one
Teaching Assistant Level 3 – Assignment 3 Question 1: Why is it important to observe and assess pupils’ development? It is essential to observe pupil’s as it enables the teaching assistants and the teacher to make an objective assessment on individual pupils. They are able to establish the pupils: behaviour patterns; their individual learning styles; the level of development; their existing skills; curriculum strengths and weaknesses; their current learning needs and learning achievements. In addition by observing the pupils the teaching assistant and the teacher are able to identify what the children learning needs are which will allow them to plan activities which would appropriate for the individual pupils learning needs, in order to help the pupils achieve their full potential. Furthermore if they notice that the pupils may have a learning difficulties, they are then able to ensure that the pupils is assessed by the Special Education Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO) or external assessors if necessary in order to establish if they do have a learning difficulty and would then work with the class teacher and teaching assistant to ensure that they are able to support the needs of the pupil as appropriate and make suitable arrangements.
Aside from abstract thinking, reason has a behavioral component. For example, if your friends with a group of people you think may get you in to trouble you will probably change your behavior in order to distance yourself from them. Healthy emotional development, also referred to as emotional intelligence is positively related to abstract reasoning ability. Emotional intelligence is “the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feeling when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Influencing type emotions usually have a positive effect on us and help us make better decisions.