Does a relationship exist or are they two distinct realms. Many philosophers and scientists have made an attempt to explain and resolve the mind-brain problem. Two major philosophical theories have been proposed as a solution; dualism and monism. Followers of the dualistic theory argue that there are two fundamental entities - mind and brain. The mind and the brain functions separately, without interchange.
Metaphysics is the fundamental part of any philosophical system. Baptista mondi in his introduction to the mataphysics of Aquinas buttress this point by contending that a philosopher is original only when his metaphysics is original. The history of traditional metaphysics dates back to Aristotle. Even though the later did not use the term metaphysics, his work set some of the basic themes in the study of metaphysics. As a science of being, its object is pure being or being qua being.
However, it can be said that personality is a sequence of permanent traits, dispositions, motives, and characteristics within an individual, and these traits shape the person’s behavior.(J. Feist & G. J. Feist, 1998). As was mentioned earlier, different theorists interpret the meaning of personality in variety ways, thus, there exist several approaches to understanding human personality or human nature or soul. Generally, there are psychodynamic, behavioral, and phenomenological theories in psychology of personality. In this paper, I will try to provide a concise but clear information about psychodynamic approaches and their theorists in explaining the human nature.
He believed psychology’s main objective was to explore the conscious experience by studying each component part in an effort to discover its structure. His ‘goal was to discover the so-called atoms of the mind’ (Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E., 2012). In order to study each atom of the mind, structuralism relied on introspection. Introspection heavily relied on observers that were trained to describe the observed experience at its most basic element rather than by a common or typical name that an average person may use.
Psychology is defined as the scientific study of the human mind. Minds however are not observable yet science is based on observation. Discuss the implications of this dilemma for psychology and explain how different ‘schools’ have nevertheless attempted to study the human mind. The word ‘Psychology’, broken down is: ‘psyche'-mind, ‘ology’- study, overall meaning the ‘study of the mind’ (American Psychological Association). Psychology is the scientific observation and analysis of the pattern between, the human mind and its functions to determine behaviour, which helps in gaining empirical evidence that can be useful to everyday life and its individuals (American Psychological Association 2013).
Content theory explains why human needs change with time. Another theory that attempts to explain human behavior is Process theory. Content theory includes the work of David McClelland, Abraham Maslow and other psychologists as they attempted to explain why human needs change, but not how they change. Content theories explain the specific factors that motivate people. In other words, they answer the question What drives behaviour?
Discussion of Interactionism and its difficulties In this paper I will discuss the Interactionism and its difficulties as the assignments require. I’m going to start with the definition of what is Dualism as a theory about the nature of the mind and its relation to the body. And the differences between Dualism and Materialism will be referred in the second section. In the third section I will answer the question “what is the ‘common sense view’ of the correlations between physical events in the body and mental events in the mind?” Next part I will explain what is Interactionism which is Dualist’s view on the correlations between physical and mental events and answer the question “what role does the notion of cause and effect play in defining Interactionism?” And next follows the answer of “what about Dualism makes the proposed causal interaction between the mind and the body problematic?” In the last two sections, I will explain what’s the principle of Conservation of Energy and what kind of problem does this principle pose for Interactionism. As described in the Paper #1, people who contend that mind or thought or sense or conscious all these nonphysical substances can only be explained fully by an appeal to something distinct from the physical are dualists, their theory is called Dualism.
Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Thesis The tenacity of this paper is to clarify and debate the amount to which development needs effects personality creation. Biological issues that sway the establishment of characters, which are themes of discussion along with the dissimilar features of humanistic philosophy, which are recognized to be mismatched with organic clarifications of character. The explanations will be a praise of Maslow’s grading philosophy. A large part of tutoring has an emphasis on understanding the growth of the human character. Corporeal, ethical, socio-emotional verbal and reasoning each of these issues makes up the creation of the individual character.
They each have their own theoretical assumptions in terms of what constitutes behaviour; variously observable responses, inner experiences, cognitions and emotional states, or both. An additional veneer of complexity is posed by the normal/psychopathological distinction. Unsurprisingly, each approach, espouses different therapeutic strategies which, in themselves, can enlighten us as to their varying behavioural explanations. I shall outline and evaluate the key features of each approach on an individual basis, and attempt to assess the extent to which each provides a workable explanation of behaviour relative to their theoretical others. I The biological approach asserts that human behaviour can be explained physiologically and neurologically.
Confirmation biasThe tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not.StructuralismA historical school of psychology devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought. Structuralists sought the "elements" of conscious experienceIntrospectionthe process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experienceFunctionalismA historical school of psychology that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function. Gestalt psychologyA historical school of psychology that sought to understand how the brain works by studying perception and perceptual learning. Gestalt psychologists believed that percepts consist of meaningful wholes.BehaviorismA historical school (as well as a modern perspective) that has sought to make psychology an objective science that focused only on behavior - to the exclusion of mental processes.PsychoanalysisAn approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's assertions, which emphasize unconscious processes. Biological viewThe psychological perspective that searches for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system, and the endocrine (hormone) system.