* Is the sample representative? Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not ensure it. It is used to ascribe properties or relations to types based on tokens (i.e., on one or a small number of observations or experiences); or to formulate laws based on limited observations of recurring phenomenal patterns. Deductive reasoning is dependent on its premises. That is, a false premise can possibly lead to a false result, and inconclusive premises will also yield an inconclusive conclusion.
Personality can mean many things but collectively the definition according to Feist & Feist in 2006, “…a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior” (Feist & Feist, 2006). It is hard to understand personality when no one can even agree about the true definition of personality so that is why we have to study it and assess the information that will help us understand what influences our own traits and characteristics. Quantifiable Human Nature The field of psychology is based on the basic ways in which humans will react through perceptions, position, and the point of views from of a lot of theorists. In the area of psychology according to Feist and Feist in 2009, “there are six dualistic dimensions on human nature and they are determinism versus free choice, pessimism versus optimism, causality versus teleology, conscious versus unconscious determinants of behavior, biological versus social influences, and finally uniqueness versus similarities” (Feist & Feist). First a thing where a human does anything willingly is called free choice.
It assumes that human problems come from operating on faulty, irrational beliefs. Some of these beliefs are conscious but many are not. Behavior Theory suggests that human actions are the results of what we have learned or been conditioned to do and that when these actions are reinforced consistently, by either reward or punishment, they become the basis of functioning in our lives. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy recognizes that thoughts and behaviors are connected and addresses both in its model. CBT is a problem-solving/task-centered approach which recognizes and challenges illogical and faulty beliefs in an effort to change negative or destructive behavior.
Although both have something to offer neither can claim full victory over truth. It is a delicate balance of the holistic and the sectional concepts that constitute the whole brain affect in cognitive psychology (Gutierrez & Ormsby, 2010). One of the earliest concepts of cognitive concepts was found in the science of phrenology. Phrenology stated that there were specific areas of the brain that directly related to personality traits and cognitive ability. This concept although well intentioned and closer to the truth than originally thought failed to stand up to the
A scientifically accepted general principle supported by a substantial body of evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussion or investigation (Lincoln et al.,1990). Again in simple terms, a theory explains how nature works. Can be modified. In conclusion, scientific laws and theories officially do not have the same meaning. I can understand how people can confuse these two words for having the same
Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding ‘Nature, by an absolute and uncontrollable necessity has determined us to judge as well as to breathe and feel’ Although many modern commentators have demurred from Hume's views, some have notably concurred with it, seeing his analysis of our epistemic predicament as a major contribution to the theory of knowledge. In ‘An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Hume tries to explain the problem of induction by humans. Hume distinguishes between impressions and ideas; he says that impressions are sensory impressions, emotions, and other vivid mental phenomena. Ideas are thoughts or beliefs or memories related to these impressions. According to Hume we build up all our ideas from simple impressions by means of three laws of association: Resemblance, Contiguity, & Cause and Effect.
Theory and techniques will be applied through the window of the case study of John, in an effort to demonstrate the effectiveness of this model in strengthening an individual’s internal sense of control, thereby changing behaviour. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is based around the notion of thoughts leading to how an individual feels and acts, discounting the external environment into a much less important role. A two-way relationship exists between thinking and behaviour, in that thinking can influence behaviour and behaviour can, in turn, influence thinking. The predominant assumption in CBT is that maladaptive behaviours arise not from a stimulus itself, but from the individual’s evaluation or thoughts and feelings about that stimulus. CBT uses a collaborative relationship between client and therapist in a goal oriented, systematic approach with both parties working together to achieve a solution, based on the
When conducted honestly and thoroughly, the scientific method can and has provided valuable information about the world and the world’s people (Jackson, 2009). Though some people rely on other methods for gaining knowledge, scientists only accept knowledge gained through science to arrive at plausible truths (Jackson, 2009). Due in part to human error and the tendency of human nature to succumb to temptations to bias research, the results of the scientific method should be viewed with skepticism (Garzon, n.d.). The scientific method of seeking knowledge and finding truth must stay within the limits of scientific ability and allow for human fragility in order to be effective (Slick, 2012). References Garzon, F. (n.d.).
Followed by two different types of learning, instrumental, and classical. Finally, we will conclude with the relationship between cognition and learning. When someone usually explains what learning is, the answer usually is described as the way to gather information, we way a person comprehends, or master’s something from experience or by his or her studies. Psychologist think that the common definition is vague and does not fully define the findings of scientist and observable behavior (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2013). Learning is used to assist in the process of adapting to his or her environment (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2013).
There have been efforts made by philosophers to reconcile the thoughts on determinism and voluntarism. Psychology being a science of human behavior does not have scientific laws to prove the presence of fate/destiny or choice. But that does not mean that the controversy ends, but it widens, since, some of the behavior is unpredictable and some behavior is voluntary. Therefore, a mid-way approach to the free will and determinism can prove to end the debate and solve the issue. For example, the illness, stress, and happiness are not choices, but they just really ‘happen’, whereas, the free will lets us achieve our goals and targets for a better life as a