In his findings, Freud believed the human mind was make up of three main components; the ego, the ID, and the superego. Primary urges being on the ID, personality related being of the ego, and superego described as a part if a person’s personality that values ideas held within from their environment during childhood, also known as peers, parents, and a variety of cultural influences. Humanistic psychology’s primary focus is a person’s free will concept of self- actualization and interpersonal growth. The humanistic school of thought was developed in response to behaviorism and psychoanalysis. The differences among the early school of thought and the humanistic approach is that the emphasis is on helping individuals reach their highest potential rather than being the center of abnormal human behavior.
The psychodynamic approach searches to explain “how an individual’s personality expresses itself through the behavior” displayed in various situations. (Capuzzi & Gross, 2005). Using the psychodynamic approach, the main goal of the therapist is to get the client’s repressed emotions in the unconscious, into the
This is founded on the psychological energy named by him as libido. Sigmund Freud and his fellow psychodynamics studied the human mind’s relationship with a person’s mental or motivational factors mostly at the unconscious level. This group of psychologists divided their study into; a) Interaction of emotional forces which includes the interaction of the emotional and motivational influences that affect a person’s behavior and mental states specifically the unconscious person’s mind state; b) There are inner forces influences a person’s behavior. They concentrate their study on the study of emotional and motivational forces that have material influence on a person’s behavior and state of mind. Sigmund Freud emphasized that psychological energy was constant.
Running head: Personality Theories Personality Theories PSY/211 Personality Theories The existence of personality theories correspond to how scholars analyze and assess the development of human identity and behavior. Each viewpoint provides a specific understanding of what cultivates personality and the corresponding factors that influence such behavior. One way to analyze personality is through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. The main argument of this theory is that problems or issues pertaining to psychology can be rooted to one’s unconscious (McLeod, 2007). Specifically, the problems are influenced by latent issues surfacing in the conscious mind.
In other words, things that are suppressed or ignored form the shadow (Eckert 1). The anima or animus is the complementary part of one's gender characteristics such as feminine impulses in the male subconscious; nurturing, loving (Eckert 1). The persona is the mask that one wears to project one's personality to others (Eckert 1). According to Jungian theory, the ultimate aim of an individual's life is to reach balance among all parts of one's psyche. By recognition, confrontation, and assimilation of the different aspects of the Self, one can be self-actualized and access to a new plane of consciousness (Eckert 1).
Theory and techniques will be applied through the window of the case study of John, in an effort to demonstrate the effectiveness of this model in strengthening an individual’s internal sense of control, thereby changing behaviour. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is based around the notion of thoughts leading to how an individual feels and acts, discounting the external environment into a much less important role. A two-way relationship exists between thinking and behaviour, in that thinking can influence behaviour and behaviour can, in turn, influence thinking. The predominant assumption in CBT is that maladaptive behaviours arise not from a stimulus itself, but from the individual’s evaluation or thoughts and feelings about that stimulus. CBT uses a collaborative relationship between client and therapist in a goal oriented, systematic approach with both parties working together to achieve a solution, based on the
The Psychodynamic Perspective The school of psychodynamics focuses on the interplay of the mental forces. It is said that humans have can have unconscious motives that underlie their true intentions. It is also said that the foundations of what was discovered rests on the evidence that people could be aware of their subconscious motivations while processing the things that affect their conscious thoughts that are related to their feelings, behaviors and intentions. Scientific studies show that psychodynamic perspective can reveal as to why a person’s actions are brought on by thoughts and feelings that would cause a reaction or a response in different situations. This school of study ultimately depends on the methods of the case studies that are performed to provide the necessary information that will clearly show them the evidence based on motivations.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was created to help measure the needs for power, intimacy, and achievement in regards to motivation. The motivational view I agree with the least is the psychoanalytic view. “The psychoanalytic view of human motivation suggests that behavior is ultimately determined by unconscious sexual and aggressive drives and by the complex intrapsychic conflicts that arise in daily life.” (Pinel, J.P.J. 2008. p. 299). Freud had some beliefs that I believe have been outdated and further researched since his time.
Cognitive development requires an individual to analyze their experiences and properly form concepts. There is a conscious effort and motivation in this theory. Freud describes unconscious urges in his psychoanalytic theory and claims there is a constant battle or obsession with unconscious impulses and sexual impulses. Observable behavior is emphasized in Albert Bandura’s social learning theory. Bandura believed that humans are able to learn through modeling.
Functionalism studied the psychological processes which enable individuals to be able to adapt to their environments; each psychological process has an important role which is their main point of focus. William James, who is one of the founders of functionalism, felt that in order to study psychology, it had to come from multiple sources, through introspection, experimentation, the study of children, the