One of the many doctors to introduce the Biological Theory of Crime was Cesare Lombroso. Mr. Lombroso felt that if a person was born with certain physical characteristics that he or she was bound for criminal behavior. Lombroso described criminals as “a retarded species and as ‘individual mutations or natural accidents living among civilized humans”, “distinctive physical features, such as protruding jaws, sloping foreheads, left-handedness, and red hair” ( Fagin 2003) were among some of the top features of his study. Could one imagine what it would be like in this era to be considered a criminal for such physical features? Due to having these physical features ones predisposition for a criminal lifestyle was somewhat automatic.
For example, in the case of a sexual assault where an evidence kit is collected from the victim, a DNA profile of the suspected perpetrator is developed from the swabs in the kit. The forensic unknown profile attributed to the suspected perpetrator is searched against their state database of convicted offender and arrestee profiles (contained within the Convicted Offender and Arrestee Indices, if that state is authorized to collect and database DNA samples from arrestees). If there is a candidate match in the Convicted Offender or Arrestee Index, the laboratory will go through procedures to confirm the match and, if confirmed, will obtain the identity of the suspected perpetrator. The DNA profile from the evidence is also searched against the
Here we will be discussing the potential advantages of using Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, compared to the current destructive techniques being used in body fluid analysis. Introduction The ability to detect body fluids at a crime scene is very important in the field of forensic science. Body fluids give insight into the nature of the crime, as well as identify those present at the crime scene. Further DNA analysis of these fluids helps authorities identify the victim and assailant, and provides evidence that can be used to convict the perpetrator. The most common types of body fluids found at crime scenes are blood, semen, and saliva (Virkler and Lednev, June 2008).
Faced with powerful incriminating evidence, defendants are often persuaded to change their plea or else mount a legal challenge to the admissibility of DNA profiling. This paper will firstly outline the procedures used in DNA profiling, without dwelling too much on the technical details. The basis of the technology can be described simply, and is not in dispute (see, for example, the decisions in People v. Castro, 545 N.Y.S. 2d, Supreme Court of New York, Bronx, 1989; R v. Lucas (1992) 2 V.R. 109).
The criminal could also wear gloves so that they wouldn’t leave their prints behind. With the technology to read DNA and match it to a person, it is impossible to not know exactly who committed the crime. Everyone except identical twins have different DNA. It is impossible to change your DNA, so this is the best way to prove either innocence, or guilt. The most common places to get DNA evidence from a crime scene is blood, semen, saliva, urine, or hair.
There are over 9,456,620 offender and forensic DNA profiles in CODIS, and the profiles have helped to assist in over 127,600 investigations. Another benefit of CODIS is that the examination of a DNA analysis can lead to a detection of a genetic disease if the individual has one. Unfortunately, a disadvantage of CODIS is the privacy concerns. The DNA of an individual can reveal a lot of information about the person. For example, many employers use the information to make decisions about who they hire; they also do a background check for the individual.
Evidence of the crime scene is obtained, this would include photographs or an in person examining of the scene, a profile of the victim (including their pathology reports), witness statements and DNA analyses of the victim and the offender. The FBI profiler then draws up a classification for the offender based on the evidence obtained. The offender is categorised as either an “organised” or “disorganised” criminal. An organised criminal would is more methodical, feeling more in control of the situation than a disorganised criminal. For an organised criminal, there would be signs that the crime committed was pre-meditated and planned with minimal evidence left behind, they likely would have known the victim and if sexual assault did occur, it would have been while they were still alive.
INTRODUCTION Forensic science has evolved into a necessity for the criminal justice world. Before the development of forensic science, many of the cases heavily relied upon confessions and testimonies of witness. Forensic science has provided law enforcement officers with other alternative, such as trace evidence and the reliable forms of evidence that can stand up to scrutiny. Without forensic science, criminals would be committing the same crimes repeatedly. While criminals get more creative, the criminal justice system and the forensic science specialists have to update the techniques and tools that are used while obtaining evidence for the new crimes.
This could be avoided if more caution was observed during the investigation process. Proper and accurate evidence should be the key to solving all investigations. An important piece of evidence is an eyewitness. Anyone can say he did it or she did it, but an eyewitness has to actually be at the scene of the crime and witness it taking place in order to stand and testify in a court of law as defined in The Oxford Dictionary.(“eyewitness”). Everyone has different features even if we are of the same race.
Forensic Testing What is forensic testing and how is it applied to law enforcement? Forensic testing is the use of science and technology to investigate and establish facts in criminal or civil courts of law. Forensic testing includes various forms of testing that can help expose, retrieve, and identify different forms of evidence that can help convict or prove someone’s innocence. Three of the most popular pieces of evidence extracted at crime scenes are fingerprints, blood spatter, and imprints/impressions. Everyone has their own unique features as well as their own one-of-kind set of fingerprints.