Running head: Emergence of Renaissance Art from Medieval Art Emergence of Renaissance Art from Medieval Art Tom McCormick Western Governors University IWT1- Literature, Arts and the Humanities Performance Assessment RIWT- Task 1 08/16/2012 Emergence of Renaissance Art from Medieval Art The Medieval Art produced during the Middle Ages lacks style improvements like linear perspective and trompe-l’oeil used in Renaissance work but it reflects a rich religious tradition and provided many wonderful works of art for the feudal nobility and for the Catholic Church throughout Europe (Wilson, 1984). Renaissance art reflected the values and beliefs of the emerging wealthy middle class and their increased emphasis on the individual. Private ownership of art in the Renaissance period led to better preservation and proliferation along with the gathering of large collections kept for posterity. In the feudal system medieval society was organized into a pyramid. Clergy and nobles were located at the top of the pyramid and the base of the pyramid was made up of the large majority of peasants working the land and subservient to the nobles.
Approaches of Henry George and Walter Rauschenbusch Henry George offered a single value tax on land property. This tax would be so large that it would give an incentive for the owner to use the land in a productive way. Doing so would create wealth and jobs in response to the ongoing poverty and social problems. Henry George used a more logical and radical approach when coming up with this solution. As economic growth occurred, so did technological advances.
This also promotes economic growth. The second distinct factor being capital accumulation has a huge role on the economic growth of the world. When landlords/masters accumulate money, they must reinvest the money to produce more of it. This will lead to more labourers being employed and more wealth being distributed amongst the nation. An important part of economic growth is what Adam Smith explains as the production model.
Interdependencies of Medieval Europe On the surface, Medieval Europe appeared simple and, at times, barbaric, however, it was quite the contrary. These times were extremely complex and all aspects of society were interdependent upon each other; if one failed, they all failed. This interdependency, one of the most important factors to their success, allowed societies all across Europe to maintain order and stability for thousands of years. “Long-term stability was provided by the principle of heredity, as the feudal relationships between individuals were extended to apply to their heirs.” (Medieval Europe/5) These feudal relationships provided different classes of society, two of which struggled for the top, and were sustained by passing this societal standing on to the next generation. Everyone had their place in the world, and a majority of the time stayed there throughout their life.
Throughout his book, Smith describes how important the improvement of the land is in order to keep up the production of a large quantity of goods. This improvement was made possible through the idea of re-investing the profit earned back into the land. “The capital, however, that is acquired to any country by commerce and manufactures, is all a very precarious and uncertain possession, till some part of it has been secured and realized in the cultivation and improvement of its lands”(272). The rise and
This surplus caused a population increase. This population increase in turn provided an increased amount of taxable income. One of the key factors of a centralized government in both Mesopotamia and Egypt was the collection of taxes. The collection of taxes in both of these realms ensured that a bureaucracy was financed. The peoples of the regions paid taxes in grains and services.
the priesthood). Reformers, influenced by the rise of a commercial economy, interpreted as simony the traditional practice of bishops thanking with gifts the kings and princes who had appointed them to their sees. The older view was that it was simply good manners (the reciprocity of gift-giving). The Gregorian Reform gave rise to the “Investiture Controversy” (1075-1122). Lay investiture was the practice of laypeople (non-clergy) “investing” ecclesiastical (Church) officers with the symbols of their spiritual offices and powers and, by implication, with the offices themselves.
Most importantly this paper opines that this transition from an outwardly Christian and biblical interpretation of the natural world to an acceptance of co-existence and hierarchy represents the waning ecclesiastical influence on Tudor and Stuart society at large. It further demonstrates the downward trend of social norms driven not by the Church but by the aristocracy and urban upper and middle classes. At the dawning of Tudor society the majority of English people still held the long-established view that the world had been created for man’s sake and all other species were meant to be subordinate to his wishes and needs. The Clergy remained staunchly committed to interpreting the story of
The Crusades aided the movement towards a new way of government. The political effect of the Crusades impacted everything from existing nations' relationships with each other to the formation of completely new political states. Vassals thought themselves to be masters and Kings had a difficult time obtaining obedience from them. “The collection of money made for the crusades paved the way for tax systems; the protection of crusaders' property legitimized the intervention of sovereigns.” (Richard). Lords often deserted a family legacy of increasing the wealth of their land after they transferred ownership rights of their lands to another when they left to support the crusades.
The missi domenici were officials with an adequate amount of power. Their role was to execute justice and enforce respect for the royal rights. With the aid of his fellow officials, Charlemagne had revived order. The Roman Empire was in desperate need of aid. Charlemagne had essentially focused on learning and the organization of the government.