The voices of statesmen and of priests extolled his wisdom and power as more than human. The Parliament itself rose and bowed to the vacant throne when his name was mentioned. An absolute devotion to his person replaced the old loyalty to the law. When the Primate of the English Church described the chief merit of Cromwell, it was by asserting that he loved the King "no less than he loved God”. This marked the start of centuries of religious conflict in Britain.
The first method Henry VII used to strengthen his authority as King was by making a public vow to marry Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, in 1484. He then fulfilled this promise in 1486 and married Yorkist Elizabeth. This gave a huge advantage to Henry as it united the houses of Lancaster and York. To symbolise this Henry created the Tudor rose, putting the two houses colours together. The marriage reconciled factions giving him strong authority.
To what extent can Wolsey’s foreign policy in the years 1512 – 1529 be viewed as a success? Thomas Wolsey was one of the most powerful men in England during the reign of King Henry the VIII. His influence over Henry’s decisions made sure that he was able to get his way when it came to proposing new laws and policies. Wolsey was successful because he was a skilled and able administrator. The war against France from 1512-14 was a perfect chance for him to show his skills with foreign policy.
He could afford to raise and maintain a powerful army, and could dominate Europe. He conquered countries who fought against France, and also attempted to unify France religiously. Overall, his reign was a success, and he left his successors with a solid foundation of France. Although Peter I improved Russia and attempted to modernize areas regarding the economy and military, he failed to lay the foundations of a stable state. However, Louis XIV succeeded to make France a powerful and superior state, and improved most classic areas of the
To what extent was Philip II an absolute monarch One could argue that Philip II was an absolute monarch as he was the King, not only that but the most powerful King in Europe as he had control of parts in South America such as Mexico and also parts in Italy, Sicilia and the Netherlands and for a short time England. As a King it meant he had the ‘divine right’, which meant that he had the right to rule from God and were accountable only to God. As a King he had the power to create war and peace, which he did against Italy in 1556. Furthermore he was in charge of an immense military power. The Spanish Armada in 1588 alone had the size of 160 ships and he was able to push back the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent, ending their threat in the Mediterranean in 1585.
On the 11th June 1534, Thomas Fitzgerald, also known as the vice-deputy of Ireland, renounced his alliance to Henry VIII. This sparked a key rebellion of which would change the stability in Ireland for years to come. The Act of Supremacy in 1534, can also back up the point of the Kildare rebellion. In 1534, Henry was beginning to change the religion in England for the better of his future heir, Edward VI. England was a Catholic country, and so Ireland followed in its footsteps and was also a devoted Catholic country.
During the Middle Ages in Europe there was disorder and turmoil, which led to the orderly classes of feudalism. To help the people of Europe, the church became spiritually involved and offered a way to heaven. Although there were dark times during the Middle Ages, new inventions and trade flourished. The best titles that describe the Middle Ages are the Age of Faith, the Golden Ages, and the Age of Feudalism because the church gained more power and land, Europe had a social hierarchy based on their role in society and there was an increase in trade and technology. The Age Of Faith was a time where the church had the most power and control over Europe.
The bureaucratic courts of Chancery and the Exchequer What were income and expenditure managed by? Were controlled from within the king's household, under the care of the Privy Chamber What was the Secretary? The king could delegate whatever tasks he chose and by the 1530's the secretary's duties often covered matters of state as well as the Kings personal affairs What did the King exercise power over and why? As the source of patronage he exercised supremacy over all 3 of the
Significance of the Death of Thomas Becket The murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket has been one of the most well-known stories associated with Medieval England. Thomas Becket was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162 by Henry II, the king of England at the time. Archbishop, at this time, was considered the most important religious position in England. The primary reason Becket was appointed Archbishop is because he was great friends with Henry II. Since they were great friends, Henry II thought this would give him the perfect opportunity to control both the Church and all other aspects of England.
The royal lands—those owned directly by the Carolingian kings—pro¬vided just enough revenue to support the king, his household, and personal officials. In order to keep the loyalty of his nobles, Charlemagne permanently granted parts of his royal land to them. Charlemagne also realized that in order to create a stable government, he would need to bring the church behind his cause. Charlemagne took it upon himself to reform the disorganized hierarchy of the church. He created new bishoprics and archbishoprics, making sure all church officials followed the orders of their supe¬riors.