How did the Enlightenment threaten traditional culture?- A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and that were just as scientific as the laws of physics. 5. What caused the American Revolution? (Full Answer)- The British government had long imposed taxes to pay for the cost of troops stationed in the colonies to defend against French forces in Canada. When the British gained control of Canada from France fewer troops were needed.
Prior to the conflicts of the 18th century, the British form of government served as a model for those seeking a successful political system, and was admired for its equal distribution of power. However, during the years leading up to Revolution, political dissatisfaction initiated by Enlightenment ideas grew considerably. The Enlightenment was a period of philosophical free thinking and self betterment that inspired many revolutionists in colonial America. For instance, Enlightenment thinker John Locke’s argued that “political authority did not derive from the divine right of kings or the inherited authority of aristocracies but from the consent of the governed,” (Brinkley Alan pg 142). Jean Jacques Rousseau concluded that all people were entitled to participate in their government, as well as possessing liberties to political and legal equality (Brinkley Alan pg 142).
With the Fronde in the back of Louis’s mind, he was to make an effective choice of picking members for his council, which would rule his political, military, administrative, and economical affairs. Louis chose his council members from families long in royal service or from among people just beginning to work their way in the social structure. Louis liked having direct control over his subjects, not only council members, or noble classes, but even in religion. Louis believed that the state of France would be better worked not only under one king and one law, but as well under one religious system, and thus Louis would no longer tolerate the Reformed church in France. Louis then revoked the Edict of Nantes and many of the Reformed Church members either left France or converted to Catholicism.
In the Middle Ages, the church had the most power and a huge influence (control) on society. During the Renaissance, religion started to affect people less. Things such as the idea of humanism would spread throughout, where the human body was seen as equal to or greater than gods (document 2). Humanism focused on individual achievements which were what the church had opposed of (document 6). Secular writing was used as a sort of guiding.
They made an agreement to set up a government based on majority rule, similar to a democracy, called the Mayflower Compact. In 1691 Plymouth merges with Massachusetts Bay Colony. Within the Pilgrims are Separatists; these people are a more radical form of Puritans. Both Puritans and Pilgrims were influenced by Martin Luther and John Calvin. The main focus in life is God, and their goal is to break completely away from the Church of England because it is believed to be corrupt.
The Puritans fled from England to the New World to escape persecution. The Puritans, their name meaning to “Purify” the church urged for many reforms in the Church of England. The Puritans followed John Calvin’s vision of predestination, and believed that everyone had either two destinies- salvation or damnation. Puritans are commonly known for their quest to freedom -freedom through salvation as well as freedom of their own religious practice- and their strict hardworking lifestyle. The Puritans wanted to alter practices promoted by the Anglican Church as well as decrease the power of the discriminatory and corrupt bishops.
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson explained how governments should not be overthrown for petty reasons, but he believed the King of Great Britain had taken the situation too far. The New England economy was growing, and the colonist gradually began to think and act independently from England. Therefore, England initiated Parliament
During the Renaissance Europe was filled with new spirit of inquiry. The reformation affirmed the power of individual judgment in religious matters and questioned authority. During this time Europe was going through events that would eventually come to a head and result in the Glorious Revolution. These events mainly began when King Henry affirmed the right to fair trial by jury and developed a system of common-law. This new system meant that rather than being thrown into a pond to see if you would sink or float to determine your guilt or innocence, traveling judges would pass through and gather a jury of 12 men to rightfully judge your case and determine if you were guilty.
The Industrial Revolution was rejected by the conservatives because it brought more power to the bourgeoisie, who owned the means of production, while it weakened the nobles. Liberalism embraced the Industrial Revolution, as it was considered the “bourgeois liberalism”. Religiously, they were very different as well. Conversatism favored a well established, powerful church (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox), and believed the Enlightenment had brought violence upon the Catholic church. There wasn’t much separation between church and state.
He opens his speech by acknowledging the role of religious groups in the building of the American society. This is an issue that had no coverage in Johnson’s address. While Reagan concentrates on religious beliefs as the instigators of social growth and development, Johnson preferred that use of education and riches as the means to achieve the same goal. This contrast is evident in the way these two presidents gave their opening speeches. The other big contrast between these two speeches is Reagan’s reiteration the freedom and liberty are things that can only be enjoyed with the full blessings of God (Rodgers, 2011, p164).