In other parts of the world sexism is more prominent because males have dominant roles over women and therefore look down upon them. Not only is there sexism, but there is ambivalent sexism which is defined as sexism directed against women based on both positive and negative attitudes (hostility and benevolence) rather than uniform dislike. To better understand ambivalent sexism I took a test that would rate my hostile and ambivalent sexism. The Ambivalent sexism inventory measure how sexist you are towards men and women. My scores from this test were quite surprising to me.
The second way is that it promotes an idea to the public as a whole. ‘For instance, it could be argued that because advertising stresses the private accumulation of goods, and almost hedonistic lifestyles, it encourages people to think in terms of escape from the real world, although they might not actually buy the specific products advertised’ (Dyer, 2002: p.73). In advertising, gender is represented in a number of ways. Brands use celebrities that embody the particular characteristics of a given gender representation. ‘Brand names communicate connotatively and denotatively’ (Dyer, 2002: p.141).
Gender is defined as the state of being male or female. It is suggested by many that as an individual grows up they are ‘shaped’ to into being a man or a woman by social structures (Holmes, 2007, p40).Whether an individual will be shaped into a man or a woman is almost always dependant on the birth sex. If a person is born male then they will be shaped by society to become masculine, if a person is born female they will become feminine. There are exceptions to this but this is largely true. Rahman & Jackson (2010, p161) go over Garfinkel’s (1967) summary of the beliefs of the average adult member of society which define a normally sexed person.
122 As a process, gender creates the social differences that define “woman” and “man.” In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what is expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected ways, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order pg. 123 As part of a stratification system, gender ranks men above women of the same race and class pg. 123 The dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals, taken so for granted as the way things should be that white is not ordinarily thought of as race, middle class or men as a gender. The characteristics of these categories define the Other as that which lacks the valuable qualities the dominants exhibit. Pg.
The thought of men being dominant over women has been shaped into people’s mind which the media influencing the idea. In another article that shows how the media shape people’s minds is written by Diana Kendall, “Framing Class, Vicarious Living, and Conspicuous Consumption”, she describes how the media frames our thoughts and how it is able to define the world for other people. People are taught by watching and paying attention to the media and advertisements what is considered attractive. Females are the ones that are mostly exposed in sexual ways to gain attention which dehumanizes them in the sense that they are being used as objects. The media needs to change how it advertise products with it actually endorsing the product and not using women in sexual ways to just gain more customers.
If people didn’t communicate, we wouldn’t be where we are today. One of the most important parts of communication is gender. Men and women are different in almost every aspect of life. It causes both good and bad in the way they both communicate. According to Cynthia Burggraf Torppa of Family and Consumer Sciences, women are more sensitive to interpersonal meanings then with men.
Women are under a constant pressure to adhere to roles that are specific to their gender and so are men. The woman by norm is relegated to the private domain and is allocated the affective role, while the man has full access to the public domain for he plays the role of the bread-winner. Devdutt Pattanaik, in his book, ‘The Pregnant King’, strives to show how gender plays an important part in defining roles and relationships, while at the same time also accounting for the interesting change in gender roles of men and women, which appears extremely contemporary and unthinkable at the time and context in which the story is set. Based at the time of the Mahabharata, Pattanaik’s ‘The Pregnant King’ brings forth a wide new range of ideas that are exceedingly modern in nature. These ideas question the societal norms that privilege the men and not the women, the norms that prevent both men and women from adopting occupations and indulging in activities that majorly interests them.
Feminist position on prostitution and pornography Psychology and women In the world full of incentives for the promotion of prostitution as well as pornography one should keep a strict eye on how to treat such features right. In fact, feminist trend in supporting the rights of women to show their position equally to men touches upon every field of activities and such prohibited as prostitution and pornography as well. It is vital, then, to evaluate what opinions of feminists should have to do with the opinion that pornography manifests men’s superiority and supremacy. On the other hand, one can guess eventually either a woman wants to follow this way of life herself or she was humiliated and enforced to be on the streets or to star in pornography. The feminist position on female prostitution and pornography is quite categorical, because there is no utter male supremacy in these two fields of activities.
What people perceive as the “norm” for men and women means that there is still a high level of gender inequality, because manly men are influenced to dominate due to their masculinity, and women are expected to submit as they are seen as the weaker gender, and more “feminine” which seems to have negative connotations in society. Especially in working environments, there is still a huge issue of society assuming jobs are gender-specific. For example, mechanics and transport-related fields of work are male-dominated and it is expected that women shouldn’t do these types of jobs because they are “dirty” and include intense “manual labour”. This assumption that women shouldn’t participate in manual labour is so outdated and untrue, there is no reason a woman has any kind of disadvantage to a man when it comes to changing the brake pads of a car or jump starting a battery, so why is it still frowned upon for women to be in such a
Differences in cognition between men and women are highly influenced by their roles in the society and culture they belong to. For example, in a society where women are defined by their male partner and depend on him economically, it is likely that they will depend on them mentally as well and will be more prone to develop depression when losing them than the other way around. Although there are biological explanations to the reason why females tend to be more prone to depression (hormonal changes in puberty, menopause or the premenstrual period, for example), I do not believe depression could be evoked solely by hormonal changes (because otherwise depression would be even more common among females) without the participation of environmental factors in addition. Another reason why I believe socio- cultural explanations are more relevant when explaining gender differences in prevalence of depression is because these