Gender or sex refers to the socially constructed categories of feminine and masculine which are the cultural identies and values that prescribe how men and women should behave. The social power relations based on those categories are distinct from the categories of biological sex (male or female) (Germov, 2009, p. 131). Gender refers to the social aspects of differences and hierarchies between male and female. (Macionis, 2008, p. 367). Gender is understood as a system of relations, a social product constantly negotiated and redefined that both constrains and provides opportunity for action.
To shorten, male and female are the terms of sex, moreover, masculinity and femininity are the terms of gender. According to Deborah Lupton, the author of “The Emotional Self”, gender plays an ultimate role from the aspect of emotional self. To point out the conceptions of the emotional self, Lupton states that: “In western societies since antiquity, concepts of the emotional self have routinely be gendered. One of the pivotal concerns around which gendered notions of emotions are structured is that of the importance of mastery and self control.” (P:105). In order to deepen the conceptions of emotional self, we can categorize these conceptions into two main parts: “emotional women” and “unemotional men”.
Social inequality and social stratification, according to this view, lead to a meritocracy based on ability. Conflict theorists, on the other hand, view inequality as resulting from groups with power dominating less powerful groups. They believe that social inequality prevents and hinders societal progress as those in power repress the powerless people in order to maintain the status quo. Positions are important so long as those in power consider them to be significant. Gender is seen closely related to the roles and behavior assigned to women and men based on their sexual differences.
122 As a process, gender creates the social differences that define “woman” and “man.” In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what is expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected ways, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order pg. 123 As part of a stratification system, gender ranks men above women of the same race and class pg. 123 The dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals, taken so for granted as the way things should be that white is not ordinarily thought of as race, middle class or men as a gender. The characteristics of these categories define the Other as that which lacks the valuable qualities the dominants exhibit. Pg.
Feminists believe that women are viewed as a socially subordinate, and disadvantaged group compared to men. A main belief of feminism is that men and women are socially formed. This social formation consists of certain social factors that influence how women and men should behave, and
Yes, I believe that our concepts on gender and sex contributes to the way that we embrace them in diversity because we tend to categorize certain aspects to what we feel a male/female should look like, sounds like, smell like, and act like and when someone doesn’t fit that we question their gender/sex instead of accepting them for who they are. Do our concepts of gender and sex contribute to our understanding of sexual orientation? Explain. Yes, I believe that our concepts of gender and sex contributes a good deal to our understanding of sexual orientation because in contemporary America, if you are a male and are feminine in
(Boundless) A reoccurring theme has been the difference among men and women in leadership is communication and the relationship with followers. Another reoccurring theme is men have been represented as more goal and task oriented and women
What are gender stereotypes and how are they conveyed in our society? According to Mior and Jessel (1989), gender refers to the socially constructed roles of, and relations between, men and women, while 'Sex' refers to biological characteristics which define humans as female or male. These biological characteristics are not mutually exclusive however, as there are individuals who possess both. This definition is also shared by the website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender. A stereotype is a popular belief about specific social groups or types of individuals.
In very few instances, say projects covering solely the supply of materials and equip¬ment, can projects adopt a non-gender-differen¬tiated procedure. Gender Imbalance in Project Management Recruitment Though more women are now getting involved, project management it is still dominated by men. Is this because of sexist attitudes of recruiters, or is it because of some other reasons? Female Project Managers, who had established themselves in project management in spite of their gender sometimes express real feelings of intimidation as part of their early experiences when they stepped into this predominantly male discipline.