122 As a process, gender creates the social differences that define “woman” and “man.” In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what is expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected ways, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order pg. 123 As part of a stratification system, gender ranks men above women of the same race and class pg. 123 The dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals, taken so for granted as the way things should be that white is not ordinarily thought of as race, middle class or men as a gender. The characteristics of these categories define the Other as that which lacks the valuable qualities the dominants exhibit. Pg.
Jainil Patel Professor Schroepfer EAD - II 3 November 2011 Essay 3 – Rough Draft 1 Kilbourne and Devor Social forces shape one’s gender identity which creates problems for that individual in the future. Men are supposed to act in a so called “masculine” way and women, in a “feminine” way. Sex is based on physical differences whereas gender is based on social differences between males and females. In the majority of the world, most aspects of male gender are more highly valued than those of females. In Becoming members of society, Aaron Devor points out that the way we act or present ourselves in society had a great deal to do with our sense of a gendered self.
Modern context in where social movement and increasing gender and equality threaten the traditional male dominance may be directed on those woman who challenge the power of a man and the status (e.g. career women), as well as towards women who are alleged as using their sexual appeal to gain power over men. However, sexual reproduction and the dependency and intimacy that man have on women and the domestic fulfillment of women. These roles create a dependency and intimacy between the two counterbalances the sexist hostility with a subjectively benevolent view of women. As per the 22-item ambivalent sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) initiated and validated in six
Gender or sex refers to the socially constructed categories of feminine and masculine which are the cultural identies and values that prescribe how men and women should behave. The social power relations based on those categories are distinct from the categories of biological sex (male or female) (Germov, 2009, p. 131). Gender refers to the social aspects of differences and hierarchies between male and female. (Macionis, 2008, p. 367). Gender is understood as a system of relations, a social product constantly negotiated and redefined that both constrains and provides opportunity for action.
From the very moment we are born, our gender plays a vital role in shaping our lives. It determines our identity through our attitudes, our behaviours, and the path in which our life is going to take due to status, stereotyping, gender roles (McDermott & Hatemi 2011). Whilst gender and sex are commonly grouped together, they do not mean the same thing. A person’s sex refers to the biological characteristics distinguishing male and female, whereas gender refers to the social, cultural and psychological components of what it means to be feminine or masculine. This implies that all people can be placed into either category, when it isn’t in fact this simple.
Gender is put into “masculine” and “feminine” categories while sex is put into “male” and “female”categories. How do gender and sex contribute to the concepts and constructions of masculinity and femininity? Gender and sex have so much to do with masculinity and femininity. Like I said above [Gender is put into “masculine” and “feminine” categories while sex is put into “male” and “female”categories.] Males are considered masculine because they are “rough and tough” and females are considered feminine because of history and women having to act like a “proper lady”.
However, this is not always the case. Different societies have always had their own standards in regards to gender roles. According to Elizabeth Corrigal and Alison Konrad’s Gender Role Attitudes and Careers: A Longitudinal Study, “gender role attitudes refer to beliefs concerning behaviors, responsibilities, and activities appropriate for women and men.” Normally, or should I say, traditionally, in
Differences in cognition between men and women are highly influenced by their roles in the society and culture they belong to. For example, in a society where women are defined by their male partner and depend on him economically, it is likely that they will depend on them mentally as well and will be more prone to develop depression when losing them than the other way around. Although there are biological explanations to the reason why females tend to be more prone to depression (hormonal changes in puberty, menopause or the premenstrual period, for example), I do not believe depression could be evoked solely by hormonal changes (because otherwise depression would be even more common among females) without the participation of environmental factors in addition. Another reason why I believe socio- cultural explanations are more relevant when explaining gender differences in prevalence of depression is because these
“Feminists can produce a positive stereotype, considering that women work just as hard as a man, inside and outside of the home. It’s unfair that women who participate in the feminist movement are accused of being butch or trying to live in a “man’s world”. They are not trying to live in a man’s world; they just want to co-exist be equals, not dominant, like men feel they need to.” Sanbonmatsu, K.
Gender inequality is amongst us all in any given society. Although gender is not as simple as may seem. Gender comes into play along with a number of different aspects such as sex, gender and gender roles. Each of these aspects play a significant part when speaking of the different social problems encountered by men and women. Sex makes up the biological differences; of male or female.