Firstly, we must understand the term socially constructed, and how it relates to gender. Gender deals with masculinity and femininity. In sociological terms, it is the hierarchical division between men and women which is embedded in social institutions and social practices. Sex, on the other hand, is assigned at birth; based on external genitalia. “Gender is usually described as socially constructed, and sex as biological.
Oakley (1972, cited in Howson, 2013) refers to gender as the ‘psychological, social and representational differences between men and women, which are socially determined and culturally variable’. Combined with Fulcher & Scott’s definition of gender, it can be assumed that males are characteristically expected to feel, think and behave in a masculine manner, whilst females are expected to do the same in a feminine manner. (Fulcher & Scott, 2011, 151). In contrast to
In Becoming members of society, Aaron Devor points out that the way we act or present ourselves in society had a great deal to do with our sense of a gendered self. He points out that our conception of what it means to be female or male are socially constructed. Furthermore, gender is “defined” differently in different cultures. He says that we start to acquire gender roles so early that we do not realize the difference in genders. In Two ways a Woman Can Get Hurt, Jean Kilbourne points out that ads affects us in potentially damaging ways than helping us informing us about the product.
Similar claims were made around the ways of understanding singular issues in interaction, although Foucault focuses on the power of historical precedent and powerful discourse on shaping the individuals and society while Goffman focuses on individuals shaping society through their interactions, rituals and habits. Their differing theories both attempt to explain the links between the individual and the society. Foucault examined the subject by focusing on historical precedent and discourse for his
I looked at Goffman’s theory, he believes social order is produced through actions of individuals and their practises through living there lives. (Cited Goffman in Silva 2009) Foucault believes that social order is produced through discourse and the power of knowledge) in disciplining individuals. (Foucault cited in Silva 2009) These two theorist whilst asking the same question of how social order is made and remade, they drawn upon different ways of gathering evidence and the end outcome is two completely different theories that even though they are quite different ,both explain the connections between society and how individuals make and remake social order. The differences of these two theorists are very contrasting in that Foucault uses Macro social experiences in where large scale structures, patterns or systems and discourse affect the ordering of social life. He focuses with the historical side of social order and why, how and by who these interactions are authorized through power and knowledge.
This essay attempts to show how feminism have challenged mainstream, originally constructed from the men’s perspective, sociology and how does it try to change patriarchal society . To fully understand discussed topic, concept of feminism should be clarified. It might refer to social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender inequalities. Interestingly, feminism takes a form in a variety of disciplines, not necessarily related with social sciences. That include feminist history, feminist literally
122 As a process, gender creates the social differences that define “woman” and “man.” In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what is expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected ways, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order pg. 123 As part of a stratification system, gender ranks men above women of the same race and class pg. 123 The dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals, taken so for granted as the way things should be that white is not ordinarily thought of as race, middle class or men as a gender. The characteristics of these categories define the Other as that which lacks the valuable qualities the dominants exhibit. Pg.
Social stratification is a structured ranking of people by a society, of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society. Stratification has a lot to do with race and ethnicity, both your race and ethnicity has a lot to do with how people are treated. Gender also plays a big role in social stratification as well, when it comes to men and women who really chooses where the men and women work, sure they have a choice but ultimately it is society that chooses who works where. Think about it for