Italian Unification Made Almost No Progress In The Period 1815- 1850

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In the period between 1815 and 1850, Italy was in a constant state of unrest. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was arranged to redraw the European continent. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the currant European powers, particularly Austria. But groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state again, promoting the idea of nationalism. The Austrian Empire forcefully repressed the idea of nationalism that was growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domains. The Austrian Chancellor Franz Metternich, an influential diplomat at the Congress of Vienna, stated that the word ‘Italy’ was nothing more than "a geographic expression”. Between 1815 and 1850 there were many failed revolutions. In 1814, the Carbonari started organising revolutionary activity. The first of these revolutions was in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1820. Here, Ferdinand I ruled, and the Caronari hated him for his autocratic style of government. At first, the revolution looked like it would succeed. However, this revolution failed because the Naples revolution was a middle- class affair. The mainland leaders had no intention of including the lower classes (such as the peasants) in their new system of government. Although the revolt had scared Ferdinand I, the division of the people in the revolt, the lack of popular support, and the limited experience of its leaders meant that the revolution was doomed to failure. In 1871, there was another revolution on Piedmont- Sardinia, after hearing news of a revolution in Naples. Once again, the revolutionaries managed to frighten their ruler (Victor Emmanuel), and they were joined my middle class liberal revolutionaries and nobles.
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