The monarchy treated its states people terribly and they were fed up, this is how the revolutionaries came to be, in general the revolutionaries were to an extent successful because they overthrew the monarchies however they were then beaten by the Austrian reinforcements that the monarchy asked help from. Mazzini was born in 1805 in Genoa; he became a nationalist after witnessing the Piedmontese refugee revolutionaries. I will be arguing whether or not Mazzini’s limited appeal was the main reason for the slow progress of national unity or whether it was down to the weak armies, little communication or with Metternia’s army. Mazzini believed that every man was equal which is why he was very unpopular with the middle, upper and aristocratic members of society as they did not wish to lose their power, influence and money. This made it difficult for Mazzini to obtain national unification as a majority of powerful and influential people in Italy were against his ideologies, this meant that the progress of national unification was very slow as a large amount of people opposed his views.
Although, the development of change already faced opposition from right-winged supporters, including rich landowners who feared social changes that the Republic would try to implement. Under Generals Sanjurjo, Franco and Mola, the Spanish Civil War began as a military coup, which was aimed to put an end to the democratic political change that was seen in 1931. As seen in Italy with Mussolini in 1922 and with Hitler in Germany in 1933, one could argue that the rise of fascism subsequently kick started the demand of a takeover in Spain. But, we have to bear in mind the bad timing of 1931 to implement such a change, with the worldwide economic crisis caused by the 1929 Wall Street Crash in America, and the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, there was now fear throughout Europe of communism and revolution. Although at the beginning of the rebellion, the three main generals were not actually all in Spain.
This basic form of opposition was never truly effective as their actions were simply put down by the government partly due to their failure to unite and lack of ideology and political demands. This was, however, not the only internal opposition to Tsar Alexander II with the “Going to the People” movement emerging in 1874. Here young members of the Russia intelligentsia went to the peasants breaching to them about their ideas about how life should be lived. This proved unsuccessful, they failed to appeal to the peasantry and the regime managed to arrest members showing them to be ineffective at this point. However, the populist movement developed from here, eventually splitting into two groups; the Black Partition and the People’s Will.
France promote the unification of Italy in a large extent. However there were other countries such as Prussia, Britain, and Austria. Also there were significant figures who promote the unification of Italy such as Garibaldi and Cavour To start with France has not always been positive factor for the unification process. France in 1848 sent an army of about 20.000 men to destroy the roman republic. At Plombieres meeting of 1858 Cavour and Napoleon III agreed to work together which the agreement was Nice and Savoy are going to belong to France(so there would be no complete unification) and fought the war of 1859 against Austria.
During the twenty-nine year period between 1820 and 1849 there were three widespread attempts for Italian revolutionaries to try and unite the country and to get rid of the foreign influences they had. The three periods were 1820-21, 1831 and 1848; in all three of these uprisings there was a very clear show of Austrian interference to put down and undermine the revolutionists. While there were various other reasons as to why these revolutions failed, such as a lack of national communication and the differences in people wanting different things, we cannot deny that the Austrian interferences was the main reason why all three uprisings failed. The first potential uprising the Italian revolutionists tried was in 1820-21, when the government in Naples collapsed Metternich called a meeting in Troppau, it was called the Congress of Troppau. Metternich aimed to stop the revolution in Naples from spreading to other parts of the country, as it was obvious, as it was the first major uprising that it had the potential to be big enough to damage the Austrian rule in Italy, King Ferdiand had promised a constitution which was not being granted when they wanted and General Pepe was appointed as leader of the revolutionists and he was to be made leader of the new government.
This led to further economic collapse that hit its climax 1777. So in order for the government to dig its way out of this huge hole was for it to create new taxes, Calonne attempted to do this by side stepping the parliament which only resulted in a Nobles revolt and a call for an estates general. Brienne became the new minister to replace Calonne, however although his many attempts to try to fix the national debt and end the crisis he was sabotaged by Louis XVI and disgraced. Once again France was at this fragile point in its economy and with the high national debt and the high taxes that the 3rd estate, and second estate were paying it made it the perfect environment for a
During the fifteenth century, Italy was constantly struggling to stay strong and unified. This gave Barbarians, France, and Spain a perfect opportunity to invade Italy and battle for control. Since Italy did not have one unified, cenralized government, there was much confussion and chaos throughout the country. For over fifteen years, the French and Spanish battled eachother to dominate Italy. The Italian writer and poet, Niccolo Machiavelli, wrote a world famous book titled The Prince, which gave suggestions on how a proper ruler should lead his country.
WHY DID THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 -1849 IN ITALY FAIL? The failures of the 1848 - 1849 revolutions in Italy failed to achieve anything because Italy was divided and each of the revolutions had different aims. Italy was separated into separate states and they all wanted different things to happen, most of the states did not want a money to run them instead they wanted a republic. The desertion of the Pope in the revolution had most of the Catholic supporters of the revolution. None of the states in Italy agreed on anything about from one thing - getting Austria out of Lombardy and Venetia.
Italian Unification, 1815- 1870 Background • After the Napoleonic wars and French rule 1796-1815 the fate of Italy was decided at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 by Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia • The Vienna Settlement insisted Italy returned to the divided state system, absolutist rulers be restored, and that Lombardy and Venetia would be annexed and ruled by Austria • The absolutist rulers of states were told not to give into liberal and national demands, and Austria would give military support if it got out of hand. 1820-21 revolution- Naples, Sicily and Piedmont • SPAIN- revolution in Spain against absolutist monarchy started the domino effect. • NAPLES- the Cabonari, liberals and middle class demanded an end to absolutism, demanded constitutional monarchy, middle class involvement in politics and personal freedoms. • PIEDMONT- the Cabonari, liberals and middle class demanded an end to the reactionary ruler of Victor Emmanuel I and constitutional government • SICILY- before the 19th century Sicily had been independent of Naples, and they wanted independence back as many felt the king of Naples did not pay attention to Sicilian problems. 18131-33 revolution- Parma, Modena and Bologna (papal states) • FRANCE- revolutions in France create the domino effect, revolutionaries in Italy though the new liberal king of France would help them against their absolutist rulers and Austria • THE PAPAL STATES- the Cabonari, liberals and middle class demanded an end to absolutism, demanded constitutional monarchy, middle class involvement in politics and personal freedoms.
The Metternich system (conservatives) gave the power back to the Nobility and the Clergy, leaving nothing for the bourgeoisie. After the congress of Vienna, the power was given back to the Nobility and the Clergy, therefore, extinguishing the idea of freedom-bringing change to Europe. Answer for Question #2: I think that these revolutions in 1830 and 1848 broke out in France partially because the French people are short-tempered and everything during these times happens in France first, but mainly because at those two times, the people of France didn’t like what their rulers were doing so they revolted. At the time of the 1830 revolution, the radical Charles X was in charge. He had complete power and with that power he forced Catholicism and raised taxes on the bourgeoisie to give money to the nobility and the clergy.