The fact that Austria had influenced Italy so much before the revolutions contributed hugely to the failure of the revoltutions. After the Vienna conference in 1815 Austria was granted a lot of power in Italy, this gave them an incentive to stop the revolutions as their authority would be threatened and they would lose out on a lot of things like trade. Mettinich, the chancellor of Italy said that ‘Italian affairs do not exist’ which shows his determination to stopping Italian nationalists. An example of Austrians intervention was in Naples where after being asked for help from Ferdinand I, Mettinich sent Austrian troops in to restore order. Similarly, in Piedmont in 1821, where Charles Felix declared Charles Albert (the temporary monarch of Piedmont) a rebel and so exiled him to Tuscany and then appealed to Mettinich for help.
He had claimed that he was the brains of the unification as well as the diplomat by saying, “We ardently wish to free Italy from foreign rule…. We want to drive out the foreigners not only because we want to see our country powerful and glorious, but because we want to elevate the Italian people in intelligence and moral development.” (Document 3) Due to the Italians being so separated because it was also partially ruled by Austria, the people of Italy eventually came together and freed the North and South, therefore uniting Italy into one nation. Giuseppe Garibaldi, who was known as the “sword” of Italian unification, helped Italy’s unification in the South, by using his “Red Shirts”. Giuseppe Garibaldi stated, “O noble Thousand! I love to remember you!
Napoleon became part of the Directory’s plan to wage continuous wars and they sent him to conquer Italy in 1797. During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. He published two newspapers. In the meantime, the Royalists were becoming strong again and won midterm elections. Napoleon planned an attack on the Royalists and defeated them again.
Influenced by the Russian Revolution of 1917, a series of strikes and revolts had broken out making Italy nothing but a ground for organised crime. The elected liberal government could not do anything but stand and watch as riot let loose leaving Benito Mussolini to take matters into his own hands in order to combat unrest, manipulating Italy’s Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti in the making, this being the beginning of Mussolini’s rise to power. One of Mussolini’s first moves, inspired by the red shirts, was to gather nationalist intellectuals, young land owners whom opposed peasants and former army officers to form a group known as the Paramilitary Blackshirts – Mussolini’s military tool in his political movement. This was the beginning of the growth of Fascism in Italy. The paramilitary Blackshirts were used by Mussolini to torture those who opposed the fascist movement, as Mussolini’s power grew, the Paramilitary Blackshirts methods became harsher and Fascism grew.
News reached him that the tribune_s veto against Pompey_s legislation had been disallowed, and that they had fled the city. Caesar knew that if he resigned his command on his army, that he would be immediately prosecuted for his actions in 59 BC. The only manouvere he could see which would enable him to continue to be free, was to enter Italy with his legions and defend his honour and reputation. OUTLINE THE CONSTITUTIONAL POSITION OF CAESAR IN THE PERIOD 49-44 BC Between 49-44 BC, Caesar became more and more autocratic, until the oligarchy government Rome had desperately tried to achieve for so long became a one man dictatorship. It began small, with a dictatorship lasting only 11 days, until in 44 BC he was given this position for life.
In the end Savonarola was thrown out of San Marcos and burned to death for his interventions in the state. These are two example of how Florence freed itself from tyranny in 1494 and 1498. Now that Medici and Savonarola were out of the picture, the Florentines decided they wanted to reinvent the city of Florence. So the Signoria wanted to renew the Florence republic and in order to do that they would commission artists to create new images that would restore the image of the republic power. The history of earlier republic city of Florence was induced in these images as well.
August 17, 2013 Political and Religious Upheaval When we look back to all of the bad events in the European Middle Ages, we think of things such as war, revolt, religious upheaval, and famine. The 14th century had all of these things and more occurring at the same time. These hundred years or so is what most look at as the major and dramatic shift between Medieval times and the modern day. But the transition was a costly one for each and every person no matter the social class. Some of the major events in the 14th century such as The Black Death, The Hundred Year War, and The Great Schism, essentially altered the way Europeans lived forever and shifted the three “big systems” of the High Middle Ages known as manorialism, feudalism,
“"Fascism" was the ideology of the movement that, under the leadership of Benito Mussolini, seized power in Italy in 1922 and held power until the Allied invasion of Italy in World War II” 18. “An attempt to provide fascism with a fully articulated theory was made by an Italian neo-Hegelian philosopher of some distinction, Giovanni Gentile, who was converted to fascism after Mussolini's coup.” 19. “But fascism equally opposed socialism, which preached class war and trade unionism and thus served only to divide the nation” 20. “Revolutionized society in such a way that the socialist critique was no longer relevant” 21. “Fascism's debts to the more extreme and fanatic elements of the nineteenth-century left wing” 22.
Valentinian II- Gratian’s brother- maintained his rule over Italy, Pannonia, Hispania and Africa. In the last paragraph on page 198 of the Pontifex’ Ambrose makes a direct prediction in the presence of Leo; “There will be war, Leo, not just now, perhaps, but Magnus Maximus will come to Italy”. True to Ambrose’s word, in the year 387 Magnus invaded Italy. This spur of ambition led him to be defeated in the Battle of Save in 388 by the hand of Theodosius. Magnus Maximus took power right away, and no one really responded to it until he got closer and closer to Italy.
Melissa Lackey HIS-122-I01 Jessica Wyatt June 4, 2013 Unit One Journal 1. "The Prince: Everyone Sees What You Appear to be, Few Perceive Who You Are" by Niccolo Machiavelli Background: Machiavelli was a keen observer of Italian politics who authored a manual on how to obtain and maintain power. He was a civil servant of Florence and was imprisoned by the de Medici family, losing his power after their return to dominance. He was also an author and playwright. Source: Machiavelli's experiences and observations Purpose: to advise rulers on how to achieve and keep power Summary: Niccolo Machiavelli's "The Prince: Everyone Sees What You Appear to be, Few Who You Are", presents his reader's with a opened minded view of how