Italian Unification, 1815- 1870
• After the Napoleonic wars and French rule 1796-1815 the fate of Italy was decided at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 by Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia
• The Vienna Settlement insisted Italy returned to the divided state system, absolutist rulers be restored, and that Lombardy and Venetia would be annexed and ruled by Austria
• The absolutist rulers of states were told not to give into liberal and national demands, and Austria would give military support if it got out of hand.
1820-21 revolution- Naples, Sicily and Piedmont
• SPAIN- revolution in Spain against absolutist monarchy started the domino effect.
• NAPLES- the Cabonari, liberals and middle class demanded an end to absolutism, demanded constitutional monarchy, middle class involvement in politics and personal freedoms.
• PIEDMONT- the Cabonari, liberals and middle class demanded an end to the reactionary ruler of Victor Emmanuel I and constitutional government
• SICILY- before the 19th century Sicily had been independent of Naples, and they wanted independence back as many felt the king of Naples did not pay attention to Sicilian problems.
18131-33 revolution- Parma, Modena and Bologna (papal states)
• FRANCE- revolutions in France create the domino effect, revolutionaries in Italy though the new liberal king of France would help them against their absolutist rulers and Austria
• THE PAPAL STATES- the Cabonari, liberals and middle class demanded an end to absolutism, demanded constitutional monarchy, middle class involvement in politics and personal freedoms.
Revolution and ‘war’ 1848-49-Naples, Sicily, Lombardy, Venetia, Piedmont, the Central Duchies (Modena, Parma, Tuscany) and the Papal State
• AGRICULTURAL DEPRESSION- the economy in the mid 19th century was agricultural. 1846-47 harvests failed, which led to the price of food rising and many could not afford to feed their families. The rulers...