He may not have had huge popular support, but by 1922 significant numbers of the most influential Italians were prepared to tolerate him as the only acceptable alternative to the status quo. There was a very significant rise in support for the fascists from 1919-22 and this certainly helped Mussolini’s cause. From around 1000 members in 1919, the party could claim half a million members and 250,000 blackshirts by 1922. This mass support was significant because it enabled the fascists to gain a foothold in parliament, which was the first step towards Mussolini being offered the post of prime minster. Indeed, without the knowledge that this growing movement would win him votes, Giolitti would not have included fascists on the government list for the 1921 elections in the first place.
This basic form of opposition was never truly effective as their actions were simply put down by the government partly due to their failure to unite and lack of ideology and political demands. This was, however, not the only internal opposition to Tsar Alexander II with the “Going to the People” movement emerging in 1874. Here young members of the Russia intelligentsia went to the peasants breaching to them about their ideas about how life should be lived. This proved unsuccessful, they failed to appeal to the peasantry and the regime managed to arrest members showing them to be ineffective at this point. However, the populist movement developed from here, eventually splitting into two groups; the Black Partition and the People’s Will.
However, the argument that carries the greatest weight is that the individuals who led these revolts and were at the forefront of the revolutionary movements were not united themselves in how they wanted Italy to unite. Austria clearly had a central role in putting down many of the revolts and so played an important role in both the failure of the 1820-21 revolutions and the ones that took place between 1848-49. Prior to 1820, Italy was unsettled and highly divided with nationalists, liberals and extremists amongst the masses. As the hostility in Italy increased under Austrian rule, secret societies emerged such as ‘The Carbonari’ – which was particularly popular in Southern Italy. By 1815, the aims of these secret societies changed in the direction of driving out the Austrians and restoring old Monarchs.
The failure of foreign policy in the years 1514-1525 can be attributed to many things. The combination of Henry's isolation from European affairs and the fact that his attempts to raise tax were ultimately unpopular failures, meant that he had no way to impose himself upon Europe. Even when he did manage to scrape together the finances needed for a strong foreign policy his reliance on his allies led to disaster. As soon as Henry took the throne in 1509, it was obvious that he was a king that wanted to fight a war. However, wars generally led to very expensive costs to the country.
Overall, all these policies somewhat increased political unity, albeit temporarily, as they widened the electorate and allowed the Italian masses the chance to vote in a majority government. However, despite this, Italy still remained largely politically divided. The Libyan invasion of 1911 divided both the right wing/nationalist interventionists (who became more
Rachel Kay How accurate is it to say Frederick William IV was responsible for the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament? The Frankfurt Parliament was established to create freedom of press, German citizenship for all, fair taxation, equality of political rights and to create a unified Germany. However, countries like Austria greatly opposed it. Frederick William IV could be seen as responsible for the failure of the Frankfurt Parliament because he refused to accept any form of leadership and made it clear he distrusted the ‘gentlemen of Frankfurt’. However, many other factors played a role in the demise of the Parliament such as the fact that they were ill-organised, the lack of popular support and their inability to enforce decisions.
This corruption also added to the instability of government and its mandate to rule Italy. Finally the liberal state also took it upon itself to unite the country and build an empire. This is partly because it saw itself as a better more powerful nation that it was. However by this time most of the best places to colonized has already been conquered by other European powers. Despite this Italy tried to colonize many parts of Africa.
Atahualpa had 80,000 soldiers while Pizzaro only had 106 foot soldiers and 62 horse men. But like I said Pizzaro had many advantages on his side and one of those was technology. Pizzaro’s technology was far more advanced than Atahualpa. For example, a huge advantage in technology Pizzaro had, were: steel weapons, steel armor, and the use of horses in battle. The fact that Native Americans had never seen such things made them even more vulnerable to victory.
The soldiers, also, took their food they needed from villages and farms they passed, killing animals digging up crops and sleeping in their houses. Later he prohibited all states under his control in the Continental System to trade with Britain. As Portugal did not want to join he invaded them in 1807. The British helped the Portugal and the war costed Napoleon millions of dollars. Russia became fed up with Napoleon and left Napoleon’s trading System so their merchants could trade freely with the British.
During the twenty-nine year period between 1820 and 1849 there were three widespread attempts for Italian revolutionaries to try and unite the country and to get rid of the foreign influences they had. The three periods were 1820-21, 1831 and 1848; in all three of these uprisings there was a very clear show of Austrian interference to put down and undermine the revolutionists. While there were various other reasons as to why these revolutions failed, such as a lack of national communication and the differences in people wanting different things, we cannot deny that the Austrian interferences was the main reason why all three uprisings failed. The first potential uprising the Italian revolutionists tried was in 1820-21, when the government in Naples collapsed Metternich called a meeting in Troppau, it was called the Congress of Troppau. Metternich aimed to stop the revolution in Naples from spreading to other parts of the country, as it was obvious, as it was the first major uprising that it had the potential to be big enough to damage the Austrian rule in Italy, King Ferdiand had promised a constitution which was not being granted when they wanted and General Pepe was appointed as leader of the revolutionists and he was to be made leader of the new government.