Schizophrenia is a serious, reoccurring brain disease that affects up to one percent of the world population today (Mental Health America, 2011).Schizophrenia is often misunderstood among the general public and can easily slip past concerned friends or family members of the patients suffering with this disease. Many signs of schizophrenia are closely related to that of depression or even laziness (National Mental Health Institute, 2007). Major indicators of the disease that persist for at least two weeks include: the constant hearing of voices and the feeling of being watched, feeling of indifference to very important problems, changes in personal interest abruptly or mass changes in personal hygiene, and bizarre behavior or new obsession with
They stated that it is therefore very effective. However, it has been said that psychosurgery does not ‘cure’ sufferers, but it can often reduce their symptoms in the same way alcohol ‘cures’ anxiety and stress- the symptoms are not removed, they are just permanently
In agitated psychotic states, the antipsychotic agent haloperidol (Haldol) is often given as an injection, accompanied by other medications that decrease anxiety and slow behavior (often lorazepam , also known as Ativan). At this time, there are no atypical antipsychotics available in an injectable formulation. If the client is not extremely agitated, usually a novel antipsychotic is used, given orally daily, for a lengthier period of time. In some cases, the antipsychotic medication is not sufficient to overcome the mood disturbance component of the disorder, even though some antipsychotics have thymoleptic (mood-affecting) qualities. Some of the atypical antipsychotic medications are thought to have antidepressant properties, while olanzapine has an FDA approval for the management of acute manic
Medications are also helpful and typically given to those who suffer from PTSD. 1. Anti-depressants like Prozac, Zoloft, or Paxil help decrease the physical symptoms associated with the illness, as well as Clonidine, Guanidine, and Propranolol, decrease physical symptoms associated with PTSD. Individuals with PTSD are much likely to experience a relapse of their illness if antidepressant treatment is not continued for at least a year. 2.
Earlier in the century, insulin and electroconvulsive treatments were used very often, but they are no longer much used, primarily because of the availability of antipsychotic drugs, in particular the phenothiazines. In numerous studies these medications have been found to have a major beneficial impact on the disordered lives of schizophrenic patients. Drugs alone are not a completely effective treatment, as schizophrenic patients may need to be taught and retaught ways of dealing with the challenges of everyday life. Psychoanalytic theory assumes that schizophrenia represents a retreat from the pain of childhood rejection and mistreatment. (Gerald C. Davidson, John M. Neale, 1998)Family therapy, aimed at reducing high levels of expressed emotion, has been shown to be valuable in preventing relapse.
In the acute phase patients will experience psychotic episodes and have no perception of reality. In the stabilization phase a patient’s psychotic episodes are managed but they can relapse at any time. In the last and final stage, maintenance phase, the patient is stable but they have to take antipsychotic medicine in order to control their symptoms. The behavioral changes that the schizophrenic experiences can be categorized as positive or negative. Positive symptoms are hallucinations, delusions, hearing voices, thought insertion and thought removal, and somatic hallucinations.
Anticonvulsants are also often used as mood stabilizers these include: Depakote, Neurontin, and Topamax. Atypical Antipsychotics that are commonly used to treat Bipolar disorder include:Zyprexa, Abilify, Seroquel, and Risperdal. There are also several anti- depressants that are used to treat the symptoms of Bipolar disorder these include: Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, and Welbutrin. Taking only an anti-depressant can increase the risk of switching to mania or hypomania, or of development of rapid cycling symptoms. To prevent this from occurring a physician will usually require a client to take a mood stabilizing medication along with an
The types of drugs used for the correction of abnormal genes in the dopamine system of a person with ADD or ADHD, are very well known. “Methylphenidate (Ritalin) or the amphetamines Aderall and Dexedrine, are the most studied and most effective medications” that are used (ADHD Treatments). These medications reduce the person’s hyperactivity and improve their ability to pay attention. These drugs are prescribed by most doctors, but not all doctors take the same approach when prescribing the medication. This is because teenagers and adults taking Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Aderall can become addicted.
SUD sometimes form as a way of coping with co-occurring disorders; “statistics show that nearly half of all people with a severe mental disorder are affected by substance abuse, and 29% of all people diagnosed as mental ill abuse either alcohol or drugs. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, mental health issues can be painful and difficult to cope with, which is why many people with mental health problems use substances to feel better” (Casa Plamera, 2009). Some co-occurring disorders are sometimes overlooked because some of the symptoms of mental disorders resemble the symptoms of substance abuse, such as: depression, anxiety, insomnia, paranoia, visual and auditory hallucinations, mania and violent behavior (Casa Plamera,
Stopping is hard as the addcitive substance alters thinking patterns in the brain o drug use continues even though they know no reward is coming. They effectively have no self control. This means they have shorter periods of abtinacne. One of the strengths of the disease model addiction is that there is supporting reaearch. Volkow gave Ritalin to a group of participants he found that some of the participents enjoyed the experience while others didn’t.