One site being prerenal failure is caused by interference with renal perfusion, manifested by decreased glomerular filtration rate. Disorders that lead to prerenal failure include cardiogenic shock, heart failure, myocardial infarction, burns, trauma, hemorrhage, septic or anaphylactic shock, and renal artery obstruction. Intrarenal causes for renal failure are associated with parenchymal changes caused by ischemia or nephrotoxic substances. Postrenal failure occurs as the result of an obstruction in the urinary tract anywhere from the tubules to the urethral meatus (Louise Cole, 2000). Obstruction most commonly occurs with stones in the ureters, bladder, or urethra; however, trauma, edema associated with infection, and prostate enlargement also cause postrenal failure.1 Statistics In the United States, the annual incidence of acute renal failure is 100 cases for every million people.
Lower urinary tract infections: urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis b. Upper urinary tract infection: pyelonephritis (inflammation of kidney and renal pelvis) Risk Factors 1. Aging a. Increased incidence of diabetes mellitus b. Increased risk of urinary stasis c. Impaired immune response 2.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is defined as a disease where the coronary arteries, arteries that supply the heart muscle, are clogged with plaque. CAD is also called coronary heart disease. Plaque comes from the fat and cholesterol in a person’s diet. Plaque builds up over time. When plaque builds up in the arteries, it reduces, or eventually blocks where blood can flow.
Acute Renal Failure Diagnosis: Acute Renal Failure (ARF) Defined: “Acute Renal failure represents a rapid decline in kidney function sufficient to increase blood levels of nitrogenous wastes and impair fluid and electrolyte balance” (Carol Mattson Porth, Glenn Matfin, 2009, pg.855) Pathophysiology: “Acute renal failure is abrupt in onset and often is reversible if recognized early and treated appropriately. It’s caused by Conditions that produce an acute shut down in renal function. ARF can result from decresed blood flow to the kidney (prerenal failure), disorders that disrupt the structures in the kidney (intrinsic or intrarenal failure), or disorders that interfere with the elimination of urine from the kidney (post renal failure).”(Carol Mattson Porth, Glenn Matfin, 2009, pg 855). ARF consequences include HTN, Hyperkalemia, Acidosis, Oliguria (a decrease in urine output less than 400ml/day). These consequences affect all the organ systems in the body.
4-6 million / 4,800 -10,800 4. 1-2 million / 4,000-10,000 2 points Question 8 The abnormal increase in white blood cells is called polycythemia True False 2 points Question 9 Leukopenia refers to abnormal increased numbers of white blood cells True False 2 points Question 10 Which white cell is related to histamine release? 1. neutrophils 2. basophils 3. eosinophils 4. T cells 2 points Question 11 Which white cell is responsible for killing parasitic worm infestations? I. basophils II.
1) Coronary artery disease occurs when fatty deposits called plaque build up inside the coronary arteries. The coronary arteries wrap around the heart and supply it with blood and oxygen. When plaque builds up, it narrows the arteries and reduces the amount of blood that gets to your heart. This can lead to serious problems, including heart attack. 2) Coronary artery disease is usually caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the walls of the coronary arteries.
Dehydration from reduced fluid intake or strenuous exercise without adequate fluid replacement increases the risk of kidney stones. Obstruction to the flow of urine can also lead to stone formation. In this regard, climate may be a risk factor for kidney stone development, since residents of hot and dry areas are more likely to become dehydrated and susceptible to stone formation. Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary
Define the term Erythema. Redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia of superficial capillaries. 10. Define the term Exudate. A fluid rich in protein and cellular elements that oozes out of blood vessels due to inflammation and is deposited in nearby tissues.
Atherosclerosis is a multi focal, smoldering immunoinflammatory disease of medium sized and large arteries filled by lipids. (Curtis M. Rimmerman, 2008) When plaque builds up the condition is called Atherosclerosis, the build up of plaque over many years.If the flow of oxygen rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, Angina or a heart attack can occur. Angina is chest pain or discomfort. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. Pain can also occur in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw or back.
Some of the ways that kidney stones form is when there is a reduction in urine volume and an excess of stone forming substance in the urine. Blood may or may not be visible in the urine because the stone has irritated the kidney or ureter. The most common type of kidney stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. About 75% of kidney stones are calcium stones. Other chemical compounds that form stones in the urinary tract include uric acid, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and the amino acid cystine.