Acute Renal Failure

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Acute Renal Failure Diagnosis: Acute Renal Failure (ARF) Defined: “Acute Renal failure represents a rapid decline in kidney function sufficient to increase blood levels of nitrogenous wastes and impair fluid and electrolyte balance” (Carol Mattson Porth, Glenn Matfin, 2009, pg.855) Pathophysiology: “Acute renal failure is abrupt in onset and often is reversible if recognized early and treated appropriately. It’s caused by Conditions that produce an acute shut down in renal function. ARF can result from decresed blood flow to the kidney (prerenal failure), disorders that disrupt the structures in the kidney (intrinsic or intrarenal failure), or disorders that interfere with the elimination of urine from the kidney (post renal failure).”(Carol Mattson Porth, Glenn Matfin, 2009, pg 855). ARF consequences include HTN, Hyperkalemia, Acidosis, Oliguria (a decrease in urine output less than 400ml/day). These consequences affect all the organ systems in the body. (Carol Mattson Porth, Glenn Matfin 2009) Cause: The presented patient scenario along with the information given indicate that Ms. Smith suffers from ARF that is caused by severe dehydration. This severe dehydration in turn produces Prerenal acute renal failure due to decrease renal blood flow and decrease glomerular perfusion and filtration. Based on the above patient diagnosis the labs would be as follows: K or potassium will be elevated to more than the normal ratio: K >5 Creatinine elevated: >2 Bun elevated: >20 Urea & sulfate will be elevated Sodium levels will be normal or low Calcium will be low & phosphate will be high. Hgb will be low: <12 Urinalysis: patient has low urine output and urine will have low specific gravity. ABG results: Patient will be in a state of Metabolic Acidosis: PH < 7.35 WNL pCo2 HCO3 <22 The Following nursing Care Plan will be

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