Confucianism is highly advocated in China. In stead of saying Confucianism is a religion, I think Confucianism is concepts of state of moral idea. It provided spiritual and intellectual knowledge to the Chinese. It taught us to be self-ruled and to be virtuous person. The Chinese believed it is a virtue to follow Confucianism.
Han China and Imperial Rome During the period of 206 B.C.E to 220 C.E in Han China and 31 B.C.E to 476 C.E in Imperial Rome many similarities and differences in political control occurred during the classical period. Although both Imperial Rome and Han China controlled large portions of the world’s population and use a bureaucracy as political control they also had differences within that held power and what they based their belief of power on or who it should be controlled by. Both Han China and Imperial Rome controlled a large portion of the world’s population and produced political and cultural legacies that extended to modern day society. They used bureaucracy as a form of political control which is a delegation of power in government. Military played a major role in there rise and fall of their political structure.
Although this is true, China was much more open and positive towards technological advancements, while Rome was more of a class-divided society, which in turn causes the general opinion on technology and advancements to be low. It should be noted that all of the documents herein are sourced from men who are wealthy and or government officials. In order to correctly state each society’s views, there should be a document sourced from a woman, a minority, and or a lower class citizen. For example, in Doc. 7, an upper-class roman philosopher and advisor to Emperor Nero, stated “...invented by someone with a mind that was nimble and sharp, but not great or elevated.” When referring to the hammer and the tongs, his point of view is that rather than making something meaningful, they use their sharp mind for making manual labor easier thus encouraging laziness.
Han V.S Roman Technology Beliefs Throughout China a disagreement in the needs of technology differed between the Han, and Roman Empire. The Han China’s attitude toward manufacturing and labor of technology was more open and positive then then Romans which had a more systematic and class-divided society, therefore causing the general attitudes of technology and labor to be low in the Roman Empire. The documents displayed can be grouped in many different ways. Documents 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 are all from government official’s point of view. Documents 3 and 7 are from a philosopher’s point of view.
The Han developed a supply of soilders, which kept their borders secured and made them capable to exchange with others from time to time. On the other hand, Rome had a centralized, mingled structure. The main focus points of the Roman Society were operated by a Roman Monarchy, which was disguised as a Republic, who controlled their complex structure. The only way Romans could accomplish anything big in a certain time span was to make strong changes in their community. It was an enormous weight on Rome's resources and power, when they had to stress over big wins.
Politics in the Han dynasty were very important to keep the empire together. In the Han dynasty, Liu Bang did something different and, instead of wealth or birth name, he gave government positions to those who were well educated and deserving of this position. Liu Bang wanted to be a strong dynasty like the Qin dynasty, but weak like Zhou at the same time. He chose to go down the middle path and be a mix of weak and strong. Bang divided the empire into administrative districts that were each governed by officials.
An example of this is “Mandate of Heaven.” It is a concept in China: The ruler had moral authority so long as powers granted it to him on the basis of his good character. A well-functioning government was evidence that the ruler possessed the Mandate of Heaven. A poorly functioning government showed that the mandate had passed away (pg. 451 The World’s History). So basically the ruler made the laws and he had to make sure that the civilization was under control by following them laws.
India and China are considered “classical” because they both ran their governments the way that we run ours today. China and India are both similar in the fact that they both had more complex and organized governments than did the river valley civilizations. With the addition of all the new land they would control, both civilizations would need to have a complex and organized government to keep the civilization stable. And with all of the new land, there would be an addition of more people to the civilization. So both civilizations had to be organized so that their civilization would always be in control, no matter how large it gets.
POLITICS Chinese empire: ChineseIn China, political structure was led by the emperor, his officials, commoners and the slaves. Also, many philosophers influenced the structure with their ideas. For example, Confucius stated that there must be respect between the classes; legalist idea emphasized on development of the state, collective responsibility and punishment. On the other hand, the emperors had absolute power with a set of advisors. They could distribute land, build massive projects or execute by their will.RomanThe political structure in the roman empire varied from the time period.
Rather than the old Republican competition for political rank and status, Augustus reorganized the administration so that advancement would be granted in an orderly, step-by-step fashion. He created new magisterial positions and extended the terms served in office to create a sense of stability. Rome achieved great glory under Octavian/Augustus. He restored peace after 100 years of civil war and maintained an honest government and a sound currency system. He extended the highway system connecting Rome with its far-flung empire, and built many bridges, aqueducts and buildings adorned with beautiful works of art.