This sparked a conflict with German Protestant princes who wanted religious sovereignty. In 1618, in an act known as the Defenestration of Prague, these said princes threw two members of the Emperor’s imperial counsel out of a window. Defenestration literally means the act of being thrown out a window. This incident was an act of protest against the newly elected king and future emperor Ferdinand II. The event sparked open revolts in Bohemia, which eventually gave way to war.
Tyler Gilbert 10/20/14 Dr. Nardi AP Euro What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation? Protestantism was a religion introduced to Europe 1517 by a man named Martin Luther when he published his book The Ninety-Five Theses, and nailed them to every door. As time went on, a schism occurred in which the Roman Catholic Church was split between both the Catholics and the Protestants. The Reformation occurred due to Luther’s disbeliefs of the Church’s current beliefs, one being the selling of indulgences, and other corrupt ideas such as nepotism and simony. With Protestantism growing ever since introduced, and many challenges against the church, the Catholic authorities responded in different ways in order to keep Protestantism from growing and correcting it of its mistakes at the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
One thing the Germans were not happy in the treaty of Versailles is the War Guilt Clause, take blame for the war. Because of this they had to the reparation to the big three. The German government didn’t have the money to pay for the reparation as the country just lost a war and the factory are destroy and the environment is in a poor state. So then the USA banks lend Germany government loans. Its was all going well as Germany was getting in a better state and they are paying their reparation until 1929.
Luther’s arguments referred to a direct relationship with God and using the local vernacular to speak to the people. Luther’s arguments removed the absolute power from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church in general. The revenue from the taxes paid to the Church would be reduced with Luther’s ideas, in part because of the removal of buying souls out of purgatory. And thanks to the printing press, Luther’s 95 Theses was reprinted throughout Germany, which soon attracted many followers, as well as many enemies. In 1520, the Pope excommunicated with Martin Luther.
The next most important reason for the collapse was religion and Charles’ push toward Arminianism and absolutism. The fear of Charles becoming absolutist shaped how his policies were viewed and the MP’s political attitudes. Appello Ceasarum produced by Montagu and commissioned by the King angered many MPs as it argued the similarities between Protestantism and Catholicism. This brought MPs to call for the impeachment of Montagu as they felt it promoted anti-Calvinism. Charles’ reaction to this, as he imposed his prerogative as the Divine Right Monarch, promoted Montagu to Royal Chaplain.
The First World War had a major effect of the Russians attitude towards the Tsar but a minor contribution to the decline and fall of the Romanov Dynasty. The Romanov Dynasty was destroyed as a result of various disastrous incidents and major mistakes made by the Tsar Nicholas the || himself. The First World War played a role in his abdication, but to a minor extent as they agitated the citizens to rise against the Tsar. Indeed the first world war had fundamental impacts upon the decline and fall of the Romanov dynasty some of these being the plummeting economy, lack of exports, and inflation. However, a major contribution to the fall of the Romanov Dynasty was the views of the Tsar in regards to the war.
Where he ended up demanding that the Lutherans return to the Catholic Church in 1531. This caused some Lutheran princes to form an alliance called the Schmalkadic League, where they vowed to help eachother when they needed it. They formed this alliance because they began to fear Charles' intentions. This whole process through religion began to divide the empire into two different territories. Charles had a conservative way of thinking.
Richelieu declared war on Spain in 1635 and again sent military and financial assistance to the Swedes and the German Protestant princes. The French, Dutch, and Swedes supported by Scots, Finns, and German mercenaries, burned, looted, and destroyed German agriculture and commerce. The war lasted so long because neither side had the resources to win a quick, decisive victory. 11. The War ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Henry VIII vs. John Calvin in the Protestant Reformation In the sixteenth century, stood the reformation of the Catholic Church in Western Europe. While the main focus was an internal renovation of the church, the outcome was much different than expected; the reformation led to a revolt against and an abandonment of principal Christian belief. The difference in the view and act of oneself was different from individual to individual during the reformation. While Calvin left for Geneva in 1536 from France because of the fear of persecution for the publically spread beliefs of his about the Church to the people, Henry VIII had manipulated the church for a way to receive a new wife in hopes for his first son. Different motivation stands for each of these people in what they did for the reformation.
French Neoclassicism The French Neo-classical era started in about 1550 and came to a close in 1715 with the death of Louis XIV (Howarth 220). “Neoclassicism emerged during turbulent times in France… Religious attacks between Catholics and Huguenots (i.e. Protestants) began, and continued intermittently for sixty years. Church plays were banned in 1548 by Henri II, most likely because of the huge religious uproar during this period. The ban on religious plays dealt a painful blow to French theatre, but its prohibition allowed secular theatre to develop” (Joyeuse).