Experiment 2: Food Test Introduction Food is a type of chemical test that use to determine the chemical molecule which commonly found in the food. These biological molecules include sugar, protein and starch. Sugar can be classified in to 2 groups which are reducing sugar and non reducing sugar. Examples of reducing sugar are glucose, fructose, galactose and maltose. While the non reducing sugar in this experiment is sucrose.
Introduction This report discusses an experiment to asses the chemical breakdown of starch into maltose (sugar) in the presence of the enzyme amylase, a digestive process within the body. Nutrients can be absorbed only when broken down to their monomers (small molecules that breakdown further to other molecules). Enzymes are large protein molecules produced by body cells. “They are biological catalysts, meaning they increase the role of a chemical reaction without themselves becoming part of the product. Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes.
Yeast can metabolize sugar in two ways, aerobically, with the aid of oxygen or anaerobically without oxygen. The net equation for more than two dozen steps involved in the aerobic respiration of glucose is: C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 --> 6H2O (g) + energy (36-38 ATP + Heat) But when yeast ferment sugars anaerobically, CO2 production will cause a change in the pressure of a closed test tube system, since no oxygen is being consumed. We can monitor this pressure as an indication of the rate of anaerobic respiration & metabolic activity of the organism. A gas pressure sensor will be used to monitor the fermentation of the sugar. The net equation for the ten steps involved in anaerobic respiration of glucose is: C6H12O6 (aq) --> 2CH3CH2OH (aq) + 2CO2 (g) + energy (2 ATP + Heat) Both alcoholic fermentation and aerobic respiration are multi-step processes that involve the transfer of energy stored in the chemical bonds of a metabolite (usually glucose) to bonds in ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate).
These tablets, taken orally during the intake of dairy products, help those people who have digestive tract disorder and cannot tolerate lactose. Other than cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt, lactic starter cultures are also used to help prepare or manufacture a wide variety of food products such as sour dough bread, pickles, and sausages. The main (starter) cultures in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The function of the starter cultures is to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot, or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt.
It is also a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers. Its main use is to produce paper but is also used as a food additive like starch. Because starch is a polymer of glucose and it cannot be directly fermented to ethanol. Bioethanol is a type of fuel produced from plants such as sugar cane or corn. It is produced by the fermentation of sugars with yeast and is concentrated by distillation to be used as fuel.
Testing the reaction rate of fermentation based on alterations in ph solutions. Emily Anderson Abstract The experiment was conducted to determine what effect different ph solutions would have on the reaction rate of yeast fermentation. It was hypothesized that, the more acidic a ph solution, the slower the reaction rate would be in fermentation process. The reaction rate was judged by the amount of co2 displacent formed in the top of the fermentation tubes every five minutes for twenty minutes intervols. Introduction When the oxygen supply runs short in heavy or prolonged exercise, muscles obtain most of their energy from anaerobic process called glycolysis.
Hypothesis My hypothesis is that the volume of carbon dioxide released from the yeast will be high when it is respiring with glucose and fructose, but with lactose, as it is a disaccharide and the yeast does not contain the enzyme lactase, which is needed to break lactose down. Method 1. For each repeat, the 3 boiling tubes were set up in a test tube rack, each containing 4cm3 of 30% yeast solution and 4cm3 of the 15% sugars: glucose, fructose and lactose. 2. 5 drops of Janus Green solution was then added to the substrate, in order to indicate when the substrate would begin anaerobic respiration.
Kathryn Watkins AP Biology Practice Essay-Biochemistry A. Salivary amylase is an enzyme found in the saliva that begins the chemical process of digestion. Salivary amylase’s primary purpose is to catalyze the breakdown of large glucose polymers known as starch into individual glucose units that are further broken and converted into carbon dioxide and water. Without this enzyme acting as a catalyst to digestion, this process would occur very slowly. Many different factors affect the speed of this process such as the temperature, pH, the number of amylase genes, and the natural amount of time that varies in each individual person’s breakdown of such molecules. B. Graph C. Since each students times varied, we have to consider
For lactose to be absorbed, it must first be split into two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. The glucose and galactose are then absorbed by the cells lining the small intestine. Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity of lactase that prevents the splitting of lactose (Marks). The breakdown of milk into its component building blocks allows it to be readily absorbed into our blood streams so its calories from sugars, lactose, proteins, casein, fats, vitamins, and minerals can be used efficiently. Our bodies do not work as hard to digest milk if they were to digest other foods.
Enzymes are specialized for specific molecules they bind. (interconversion) Cori cycle • In the muscles anaerobic respiration converts glucose into lactate. • Under normal conditions lactate proceeds to the liver and converted to pyruvate and glucose again • If lactate remained in the muscles, there would be a build up of lactic acid causing lactic acidosis. • Also if lactate was to be converted to glucose in the cell, energy expenditure would not be sustainable because muscles spends 6 ATPs (donated by liver) to generates 2 ATPs Aldolase deficiency • Under normal conditions, fructose is converted to fructose1-phosphate (F-1-P) by fructokinase • Fructokinase is then metabolized to DHAP + gluceraldehyde by aldolase B. With deficiency of aldolase B, fructose continues to be converted to F-1-P and results to a build up.