Hypothesis: I think that it will take about 4 tsp of baking powder to fully neutralize the tablespoon of lemon juice. I also think that when I mix them together, CO2 will form. I think that it will take about 3 tsp of baking powder to fully neutralize the vinegar because the lemon juice has a higher pH level (more acidic) 5 Materials: For this experiment I will use: * Lemons (fresh) (1/2 dl) * Vinegar (1/2 dl) * Baking powder * Measurement cups * 2 Glass beakers (400ml) * 2 Stirring rods * pH paper roll * 2 pipettes Procedure: I
EXPERIMENT: THE EFFECT OF ENZYME CONCENTRATION ON THE ACTIVITY OF CATALASE DESIGN Aim To investigate the relationship between the enzyme concentration and the activity of catalase. Research Question How does the rate of oxygen production by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide vary with the increasing concentration of the enzyme catalase? Hypothesis The rate of oxygen production increases as the concentration of the micro-organism yeast, which is the source of the enzyme, increases. Variables Independent Variable: Concentration of yeast Dependent Variable: Rate of oxygen production Controlled Variables: Volume of hydrogen peroxide, mass of hydrogen peroxide, temperature and pressure Apparatus • Instant dry yeast • Measuring cylinder • Boiling tube • Delivery tube • Stopper • Pipette • 5 cm3 hydrochloric acid • 100 cm3 beakers • Stopwatch Warning Hydrogen peroxide may cause burns to skin and clothing. Wash off any spillages using plenty of water.
Yeast can metabolize sugar in two ways, aerobically, with the aid of oxygen or anaerobically without oxygen. The net equation for more than two dozen steps involved in the aerobic respiration of glucose is: C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 --> 6H2O (g) + energy (36-38 ATP + Heat) But when yeast ferment sugars anaerobically, CO2 production will cause a change in the pressure of a closed test tube system, since no oxygen is being consumed. We can monitor this pressure as an indication of the rate of anaerobic respiration & metabolic activity of the organism. A gas pressure sensor will be used to monitor the fermentation of the sugar. The net equation for the ten steps involved in anaerobic respiration of glucose is: C6H12O6 (aq) --> 2CH3CH2OH (aq) + 2CO2 (g) + energy (2 ATP + Heat) Both alcoholic fermentation and aerobic respiration are multi-step processes that involve the transfer of energy stored in the chemical bonds of a metabolite (usually glucose) to bonds in ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate).
The problem of the experiment was as follows: How does the concentration of sugar in a solution affect the rate of the alcoholic fermentation being performed by the yeast cells? The independent variable of the experiment was the concentration of sugar in the apple cider. The dependent variable of the experiment was the time, in minutes; it took for the balloon to fill up with the carbon dioxide given off from the fermentation process. Finally, the hypothesis developed for the experiment was as follows: The higher the sugar concentration in the cider mixture, the less time it will take for the balloon to rise The procedure of the Alcoholic fermentation lab was as follows: 1. 3 test tubes, 3 balloons, a thermometer, a timer, a test tube rack, tape , and a marker will be needed 2.
It is produced by the fermentation of sugars with yeast and is concentrated by distillation to be used as fuel. The fermentation of starch involves the starch being converted into a sugar so it needs to be broken down to simpler glucose molecules through hydrolysis. Starch is converted enzymatically to glucose by an enzyme called amylase. The enzyme is a biological catalyst which speeds up the rate of the reaction. The resulting dextrose from the starch is then fermented into ethanol with the aid of yeast which produces carbon dioxide.
Question doesn't relate to hypothesis - fix! AP Lab – Cellular Respiration Question: How does temperature affect the rate of cellular respiration in germinating and dry peas? Hypothesis: If both germinating and dry peas are placed in a respirometer and submerged in room temperature water and water with a temperature of 10 °C, then the respirometer with the germinating peas will prove a greater rate of cellular respiration than that of the dry peas in both temperatures of water. Procedure: See lab handout Data: See attached Analysis Questions #1-10 1. Conditions that must remain constant in this experiment include the temperature of the water baths and the volume of peas and beads in the respirometers.
Keywords: Ethanol, Simple Distillation, Fractional Distillation, Biosynthesis Introduction: It is well known that all throughout history, people have utilized yeast’s ability to convert sugars into ethanol primarily in hopes of an intoxicating beverage. (See figure 1) Figure 1 Fermentation alone only yields an ethanol concentration of about 11% due to the fact that a 12% concentration inhibits fermentation because the yeast dies off. However, mankind decided that 10-11% ethanol is just not good enough therefore creating a necessity to distill. In this lab we used both simple and fractional distillation methods. Though both methods achieve the goal of higher concentration it is not possible to obtain 100% ethanol using these techniques.
YEAST REPRODUCTION IN SUGAR SUBSTITUTES Johnna Ruth C. Lopez1 & Rose Tifanny A. Pol1 1Department of Biology, College of Science, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila ABSTRACT Yeast utilizes the glucose in its environment to make energy. Equal (aspartame) and Splenda (sucralose) are both man made sugar substitutes. These substances aren’t supposed to have any calorie content so yeast life shouldn’t be possible. 6 mL room temperature water, 0.6mL sugar and 0.6mL yeast were poured into each test tube.
Nevertheless, the class results suggest that glucose is the most effective respiratory medium for growing of yeast cells while sucrose remains the least growth-promoting respiratory substrate. C3, C4, C5 The process of cell division in all fungi (including yeast cells) is ‘budding’. It involves a division of a grown cell (which has reached its’ critical size) into two daughter cells. A weakening of the cell wall and along with the tension exerted by turgor pressure extrusion of cytoplasm into an area bounded by new cell wall material is allowed. Yeast cells, just like all respiring cells, require energy in the form of ATP for cell division/growth.
Conclusion:The purpose of this lab is to prepare and purify a fuel, ethanol C2H5OH. We learned to do so by the process of fermentation, and distillation. Over the course of 2-3 weeks, we collected and analyzed the data for this lab. On day 1, we prepared our sugar-yeast solution which contained warm water, sugar, and yeast. With the help of the water, the yeast was then the reactant, then which was activated.