Yogurt Fermentation Essay

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Introduction: As implied by the name "lactic cultures," belong to a category of microorganisms that can digest the milk sugar lactose and convert it into lactic acid. For the cells to utilize lactose, deriving carbon and energy from it, they must also possess the enzymes needed to break lactose into two components sugars: glucose and galactose. Some representative strains are Streptococcus lactis, S. cremoris, thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and L. plantarum. These cultures can be purchased directly from local health food and drug stores in tablet form. These tablets, taken orally during the intake of dairy products, help those people who have digestive tract disorder and cannot tolerate lactose. Other than cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt, lactic starter cultures are also used to help prepare or manufacture a wide variety of food products such as sour dough bread, pickles, and sausages. The main (starter) cultures in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The function of the starter cultures is to ferment lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot, or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt. The fermentation of lactose also produces the flavor compounds that are characteristic of yogurt. Other bacterial cultures, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus subsp. casei, and Bifido-bacteria may be added to yogurt as probiotic cultures. Probiotic cultures benefit human health by improving lactose digestion, gastrointestinal function, and stimulating the immune system (Yogurt Production). Purpose: To demonstrate the use of microorganisms (Lactobacillus) in food processing by using yogurt as an example. Materials and methods: A. Equipment · · · · Beakers Heat source Incubator, 43ºC Thermometer B. Reagents · · Milk Starter

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