“The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed”. (King, R 2012) Energy can be converted into many different forms, such as; chemical energy can be converted into heat energy. Nutrients contain molecules that have high chemical energy potential but are often not available to the body. Chemical energy that is found in the nutrients can also be converted into a useful form of mitochondria, this is cellular respiration. Glucose + Water = Carbon dioxide + Water, the same time, ADP is converted to ATP a high energy unstable molecule.
Glucose is split into two molecules called pyruvate and two ATP molecules are generated per molecule of glucose as well as two molecules of NADH. Also Glucose takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. Without oxygen it is called fermentation with oxygen it is the first stage of the cellular respiration. • What is the role of the citric acid cycle?
C6 H12 O6 = 2C3 H6 O3 + 2ATP (lactate) This is a structure of ATP ATP contains sugar which is Ribose, a base which is Adenine and three phosphate groups. Biological systems transfer the energy in glucose to ATP because unlike glucose ATP releases its energy instantly in a single reaction and also the hydrolysis of ATP releases a small amount of energy, ideal for fuelling reactions in the body. Glucose is obtained from food; we eat pasta which is a carbohydrate which is then broken down into glucose by the digestive system. The process which breaks this down is known as catabolism, this is the breakdown of food components, breaking down
All living organisms depend on continuous transfers of energy; they require energy to allow certain processes in the body to occur, such as active transport, DNA replication, cell division, protein synthesis, muscle contraction, homeostasis, etc. These are important so that organisms can continue to survive. In this essay, I am going to highlight the way energy is transferred, firstly from the environment to organisms, and the energy transfer between organisms. The main route by which energy enters an ecosystem is photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process where light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of glucose.
The starch is used to replicate the starch intake from the plants the caterpillar ingests. Since sugars are insoluble, plants convert them to starches to store them. In the first setup, where no amylase is present, there is no passage of starch from the inside of the tubing to the beaker, however, the Lugols is demonstrated to be a small enough molecule to travel across the membrane, demonstrated by the color change of the inside of the tubing from a cloudy white to a dark blue, a sign of reaction between the Lugol and starch. Once the caterpillar eats the starches, the digestive enzyme amylase breaks down the starch into the original, insoluble sugar. The sugar molecule is now small enough to travel across the membrane to the less concentrated area.
MODEL ANSWERS FOR AQA BIOLOGY UNIT 1- BIOLOGY AND DISEASE June 2014 9 a. Explain why Maltase only breaks down Maltose, How does enzymes allow reactions to occur at body temperature? (5 marks) * Active site Specific to substrate-Complementary (Enzyme and Substrate) * Enzyme Substrate complex * Specific Amino Acid structure/ Primary Structure * Specific Tertiary Structure * Lowers activation energy * Reaction requires less energy for hydrolysis * Idea Biological catalyst/Not used up in reaction/Remains the same at the end of Reaction b. Explain in terms of the effect on enzymes how Competitive and Non-competitive inhibitors effect the enzymes (5 mark) * Competitive inhibitor similar shape to substrate * Blocks/Bound to Active site / Substrate can't bind * Enzyme substrate complex * Fewer Enzyme substrate complexes formed / Reduced products formed- example accepted e.g. Maltose --->2* Glucose / Reduced rate of reaction (Hydrolysis) * Non Competitive binds to site other than active site * Conformational change in shape of active site * Bonding breaks/ change shape / rearrange e.g.
The yeast suspensions were not able to produce carbon dioxide from the control, lactose solution, or galactose solution (Table I). The greatest rate of carbon dioxide release for the central third of the elapsed time (from the 15 minute mark to the 30 minute mark) was 0.0313 mL/min for fructose solution followed by 0.0213 mL/min for sucrose solution, 0.206 mL/min for glucose solution, and 0.0200 mL/min for the maltose solution (Table II). The structure of each monosaccharide and disaccharide determines whether the enzymes present in the yeast can metabolize the sugar and produce carbon
DIFFERENCES IN STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF SUGARS AND THE INFLUENCE OF SUGAR ON ABILITY OF YEAST TO FERMENT Sarah Yacobi In this study, we investigated the structural properties of various sugars that influence yeast’s ability to ferment. Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which energy is released in the absence of oxygen. This is a metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate such as starch or sugar, into an alcohol or acid. It is known that many alcoholic beverages are made with fruit juice from things such as grapes, etc. Therefore, we hypothesized that fructose, which is a 6 carbon sugar, will be likely to ferment more readily than ribose, which is a 5 carbon sugar, when in the presence of yeast.
The Active dried yeast is a type of original all-natural yeast that has been used by generations of bread bakers. The yeast activity may decrease if it comes into direct contact with salt or sugar. When all ingredients are mixed together, the yeast will converts simple sugars into carbon dioxide, alcohol and water. The CO2 expands in the dough to produce gaseous bubbles. All these bubbles cause the bread to rise.
Those foods with lower water activities are quite shelf-stable in that they contain very little water available for microorganisms to use for growth. When microorganisms grow, they degrade the food causing spoilage as well as health dangers for the consumer. Although there can be a correlation between total moisture content of a food and the water activity, the correlation does not occur at all times. Food products can exist with high moisture content but have very little water activity. Many natural ingredients can be added to a product to “bind” the water making it unavailable for the growth microorganisms.