Indicating that the theory of interpersonal relations is derived from the metaparadigm concepts of person and nursing. She describes nursing as a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process. This entails three phases of interpersonal process: orientation, working and termination (Fawcett, 2000). In the orientation phase, the patient seeks help and the nurse assists in order to understand the problem and the need for help. During the identification phase, the patient assumes the dependence, interdependence or independence within the nurse patient relationship.
Dorthea Orem’s self-care model is focusing on care steered toward patient’s taking care of him or herself. Orem identified three theories of care, self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing systems. Self-care is the practice of activities that individual initiates and performs on his or her own behalf in maintaining life, health, and well-being (Current nurses, 2013). Self-care deficit, as described by Current nurses, (2013) “…when nursing care is required when an adult (or in the case of a dependent, the parent) is incapable or limited in the provision of continuous effective self-care” (p. 1). Nursing systems is based on the needs of the patient and the amount of assistance he or she may require from the nurse.
Nightingale’s approach was patient-centered care; she viewed the person as multidimensional with intellect made up of "biological, psychological, social, and spiritual components” (Current, 2012). Nightingale viewed all people equally and wanted to help the masses that were suffering. She believed nursing was a service to God and that nursing care aided in maintaining or restoring patients through the alteration of a patient’s environment (Alligood, 2010, p. 99). Florence Nightingale’s nursing theory began laying the groundwork for subsequent nursing theorists. One theorist who followed in her footsteps and adopted her philosophy regarding nurse caring behaviors is Jean Watson.
Jean Watson developed many writings expressing her philosophy to integrate human caring into the science of nursing. The three major principles appeared consistently throughout her texts were the transpersonal caring relationship, the caring occasion/caring moment, and the carative factors that represent feelings with action (Lachman, 2012). According to Alligood (2010), “Watson defines caring as the ethical and moral ideal of nursing that has interpersonal and humanistic qualities" (pp. 111). Caring is an ethical code that fits into the therapeutic interventions that nurses incorporate into their plan of care (Watson, 1999).
Finally, it describes nursing as a process of human interaction; with the goal helping patients achieve their goals (King, 2007, 2008). . Dr. Martha E.Rogers’: Science of Unitary Beings has three central principles: helicy, resonancy, and integrality of the human being. Dr. Rogers’ work conceptualizes how a person’s environment is constructed of an irreducible, irreversible and pan-dimensional energy fields that evolve negentropically. A negentropic energy field is identified by a pattern of manifesting characteristics, whose sum is different from those of the individual parts and encompassing all that is other than any given human field.
A holistic analysis of the effectiveness of communication in Nursing Practice Introduction: This essay is designed to analyse the effectiveness of communication in the nurse-to- patient relationships; drawing particular attention to the strengths and weaknesses of verbal communication among practitioners, nurses, clients and their significant others. Communication is one of the commonly stated competencies required to work effectively within any multi-professional environment (Suiter et al.2009) as cited in Thomas, Pollard & Sellman (2014). Arnold and Boggs (2011, pp163) defines communication as a two way process that uses a combination of verbal and non-verbal behaviours integrated for the purpose of sharing information. However, Goodman & Clemow (2010, pp55) argues that communication has gone beyond the mere exchange of information; nonetheless, other attributes of clients are being shared, like meanings, views or feelings. Based on these two premise, communication in nursing focuses on attending, listening, intervening and exploring the contents of information while observing the feelings of the patient (Arnold and Boggs, 2009, pp37-38).
Her basis for health and nursing is to provide a goal to work toward. This is done through mutual communication to establish these goals and taking actions to attain these goals. (Nursing, 2012) Dorothea E. Orem is known for her theory of “Self Care Deficit”. Her philosophy on the person is that people are distinct individuals and should be self reliant and responsible for their own care. There are environmental factors which include elements and conditions that develop within the environment.
The second belief stems around what resources are available within their environment to aid the dependent individual. This theory is the core of Orem’s grand theory of nursing because it characterizes when nursing is needed. The third and final interrelated theory is the theory of nursing systems. This describes the actual actions the nurses perform to assist people with the self care needs and deficiencies. It breaks down the nurse patient relationship and roles into three categories, Wholly compensatory, partly compensatory, and supportive.
People have different perspectives regarding the nursing profession. Nursing careers include direct contact with patients. That is why one should be highly dedicated to this job to become the best possible caregiver one can be. Personal nursing philosophy entails the core beliefs and values incorporated into the profession to act as guidance to nurses when taking care of the clients. It upholds the treatment of every patient with care, compassion, respect and dignity; regardless of their ethnicity, race, disease or financial status (Barnard, 2002).
In this theory, Orem concentrates mainly on self-care which she defines as “the performance or practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf to maintain life, health, and well-being” (Foster, 2010). Therefore, this theory encourages an individual’s participation in sustaining his or her own health. As discussed by Fawcett (2005), nursing models revolves around four metaparadigms of nursing: health, person, nursing and environment. In this paper, we will discuss Orem’s self-care deficit theory pertaining to the four metaparadigms and also the application of this theory to current clinical settings. Health Health is denoted by the World Health’s Organization as “a state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (“WHO definition of health 1948,” 2013, para.1).