Specifically, most psychologists are interested in the processes that occur at particular ages, and what the child's capabilities are at each stage of their childhood. Many psychologists have carried out research on child development in the following areas: Intelligence (Piaget), Moral Values (Kohlberg), and Emotion (JJ Campus et al.) Piaget throughout his career was a developmental psychologist and contributed a significant amount to the study of children. Piaget was very passionate about the study of children, and devoted his life to his work. A lot of resources will refer to intellect as the ability to learn or reason.
Skinner – Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.
1. Explain the purpose of the following types of assessment in learning and development • Initial Assessment • Formative Assessment • Summative Assessment Formative Assessment Initial assessment provides the information needed to plan an individual’s learning and improve their chances of learning effectively. Without it, there are only assumptions. It’s always possible to make some predictions about learners from an application form or selection test, but it’s an insecure basis for planning. Learners themselves bring assumptions about learning based on the past, and some of these may get in the way of looking ahead to a new way of learning.
Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development Initial assessment in identifying learner needs The Initial assessment (IA) process could be classed as the most important information gathering process. It not only allows the teacher to decipher if the student is enrolling on the correct course for them but also to collect details about the learners past educational experiences, upbringing conditions i.e. a care environment and any particular learning issues. The initial assessment can be both formal and informal. Formal IA may be application forms, references and other relevant documentation.
In other words, they answer the question What drives behaviour? It is important to remember that the following are theories, none of which have been conclusively shown to be valid. Nonetheless, they are helpful in providing a contextual framework for dealing with individuals Process theory is a commonly used form of scientific research study in which events or occurrences are said to be the result of certain input states leading to a certain outcome (output) state, following a set process. Another theory that attempts to explain human behavior is Content theory. Process theory holds that if an outcome is to be duplicated, so too must the process which originally created it, and that there are certain constant necessary conditions for the outcome to be reached.
Erikson for his theory of psychosocial development, who believed that personality develops in a series of stages. However, each author has their own view regarding the educational implication of the various processes, as well as, the role of various environmental components. The following articles (Horn 2009), will attempt to support and the educational implications of each theory. The articles highlight the major theories, research and opinions of Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erik Erikson’ on how children develop and learn. The first article by (Webb 1980) talks about Piaget belief that within each person there is an internal self-regulation mechanism that responds to environmental stimulation by constantly fitting new experiences into existing cognitive structures called schemas developmental stages in teaching.
Chapter One – Reflection Paper The first chapter of our text, Organizing Themes in Development, discussed several theories past and present about human development that are critical for a counselor to possess a solid, thorough understanding so they can draw upon this information to help solve problems and find solutions for the client. The theoretical lens that best fits with my view of human development would be the multidimensional / systems theories because there are so many different aspects that are influencing development and that are influenced by development. In particular, I felt Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory as well as Life Span Developmental Theory make the most sense. My initial thoughts on the major issues in development such as continuity and discontinuity are to side with continuity, in that development changes steadily and over a period of time versus rapid and only during the transitions between stages. In regard to nature and nurture, I feel that the book is accurate in stating on page 18 that they are interdependent upon one another versus separate and “against” one another.
A reflective practice model would enable learners and novices within a discipline to compare their own practices with those of experienced practitioners, thus leading to development and improvement. Although given currency by Schon (1983) and Kolb (1984), reflective practice has been advocated by educationists such as Dewey (1909) and Lewin (1952) and can be traced back to the Socratic method of enquiry - in which questioning and exploration of the implications of another's viewpoint are employed to enlighten the enquirer. Moon (1999) defines reflective practice as "a set of abilities and skills, to indicate the taking of a critical stance, an orientation to problem solving or state of mind." In essence, it is a readiness to constantly evaluate and review your practice in the light of new learning (which may arise from within the context of your professional practice). A reflection in a mirror is an exact replica of what is in front of it.
Social Cognitive * Affective learning processes Self regulated learning tends to be influenced by an individual’s emotions, behaviors, and their cognitive processing (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). This is a process that will orient the individual in achieving their goals by self generating (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). Schunk and Zimmerman (1997) stated that the self regulated learning process can also be considered as an academic self regulation process which has been studied over the years throughout different classrooms. The students taking the course learn how to use motivation, cognition, and behavior to improve their learning skills. These students who use motivational beliefs also utilize more self regulation learning skills (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997).
In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure their thinking, thereby decreasing the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker's inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism. Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc. Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and cultivation of intellectual traits.