Interpellation is where ideology functions in constructing identity and creating a particular position for an individual in society. The role of interpellation and subjectivity can be said as important in creating identity to an individual. Thus, the process of identification creates an identity, where ‘You identify me and I become that me that you have identified’ (Judith Butler , 2009). The connection between interpellation and subjectivity can be seen through Louis Althusser’s depiction of the interpellative function of Ideological State Apparatuses: "[I]deology 'acts' or 'functions' in such a way that it 'recruits' subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or 'transforms' the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by the very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace every day police (or other) hailing: 'Hey, you there!'”. With the comment, Althusser stress on the close relation of how interpellation functions in constructing subjectivity.
Therefore, arts managers need to address motivating forces to motivate their employees. This assignment will explain the Theory of Acquired-Needs Motivation in arts management and then discuss its several applications. It will also evaluate the theory to arts organizations. Introducing the definition of motivation and its theories is essential in order to explain the Theory of Acquired-Needs Motivation. Motivation is a process that arises from research in physiological or psychological need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal (Byrnes 2009).
Particularly striking in this conception is the notion of inventory, which suggests multiple ontologies and the need to collate. The assumptions about the nature of the world in sociology can be classified into two broad orientations, realism and social constructivism. Realism posits the existence of an objective reality independent of human thoughts and beliefs. Contrary to this position, social constructionism is of the view that reality is not independent of human thoughts and beliefs; rather, it is socially constructed (Oxford dictionary of sociology, 552-553, 609). Berger and Luckmann (1967:15-22) argue that social relativity is inherent in reality and knowledge, hence, its collection is defined by social contexts imperative for sociological analysis.
In any type of relationship, managing private and public boundaries are required (West, 2010). The three assumptions of CPM are that humans are choice makers, humans are rule makers and rule followers. Lastly, human choices and rules are based on a consideration of others, as well as the self. To add onto these assumptions, there are the dialectic theory of CPM theory, in which relational life is characterized by change and contradiction is the fundamental fact of relational life. All these assumptions suggest that “if we disclosed everything, we wouldn’t have a concept of privacy” (West, 2010).
Organizational culture is an idea in the field of organizational studies and management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. " Ravasi and Schultz (2006) state that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. Although it’s difficult to get consensus about the definition of organizational culture, several constructs are commonly agreed upon – that organizational culture is holistic, historically determined, related to anthropological concepts, socially constructed, soft, and difficult to change. This definition continues to explain organizational values, described as "beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals.
Ellis, whose work was influenced by Alfred Adler & behaviourists John Dollard & Joseph Wolpe, began developing what is now known as Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). His model was based on the philosophy that our perception of what is happening, affects us more greatly than the actual events themselves. Psychiatrist Aaron Beck also began looking at how our behaviour is determined by attitudes & assumptions derived from previous experiences & how these could be a block to behavioural therapy on its own. He began to develop his own model using techniques that amalgamated both behavioural & cognitive therapy, which he called Cognitive Therapy. This model has evolved into what we now recognise as CBT.
Examples of each are given as well as being compared and contrasted. Functionalist theory was first posited by Daniel Katz in “The Functional Approach to the Study of Attitudes”. Katz (1960) takes the view that attitudes are determined by the functions they serve. People hold given attitudes because these attitudes help them achieve their basic goals. The components/functions that have been posited by this theory are instrumental, knowledge, value-expressive, and ego-defensive.
Moral development is the process of making decisions based on what is right or wrong. Each person’s values vary because the values of individuals are personal assumptions about what he or she believes is morally correct or wrong. Summarized in this paper is an explanation of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development. Analyzed in the paper will be three contributions that Kohlberg made to individuals understanding of moral development. Also will be explained the three limitations of Kohlberg’s theory.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY: “Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment” (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) In simpler words, it means how and why ordinary people explain events like they do. Heider (1858) believed that people are pretty much naïve psychologists who are trying to make sense of the world. People have a habit of seeing cause and effect even when there is none. By cause he means WHY something happens and by effect he means WHAT happens.
Ravasi and Schultz (2006) stated that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations.  Although a company may have its "own unique culture", in larger organizations there are sometimes conflicting cultures that co-exist owing to the characteristics of different management teams. Organizational culture may affect employees' identification with an organization.  According to Needle (2004), organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, and strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture. Corporate culture on the other hand refers to those cultures deliberately created by management to achieve specific strategic ends.