Compare and contrast how content analysis and ethnographic research have been used to study children`s understanding of friendship. This essay will look at the similarities and differences between two research approaches: content analysis and ethnographic research. Both sets of studies were conducted in a research on children`s understanding of friendship carried by Brian Bigelow and John La Gaipa (1975) and William Corsaro (1985). In this essay I aim to consider the background of the research, who the participants were, what type of data was produced and the research contribution towards our understanding of children friendship. Bigelow and La Gaipa as well as Corsaro aimed to investigate children`s friendship and the important role which these friendships play in children`s life.
When handling assessments it is important that a counselor is not only trained and competent with what the test is used for, but also in the interpretation of results. The ASCA Ethical Guidelines (2010) outline seven points that a counselor should follow when administering and interpreting an assessment given to the students. One point explained in the ASCA Ethical Guideline subpart A.9.e (2010) is that assessment results and interpretations must be monitored to ensure that they are not being misused by others. When reviewing over the CARE Assessment, one concern by reviewers was that students may be deemed “violent or dangerous” based on test results (Furlong, 2004). As Furlong et.al (2004) also explains that this assessment must be handled with care and that those purchasing and using the assessment need to make sure that they are testing students who pose a potential risk to themselves or others.
Throughout this paper I will be discussing Roger’s person-centered approach to psychotherapy. Here I will explore this model’s key features and any situations this model would be best suited. I will also be looking at the application of this model and discussing its strengths and weaknesses from both a counseling perspective and Christian viewpoint. Rogers began forming his ideas of person-centred therapy at a child guidance clinic working with maladjusted youth (Norcross, Prochaska 2003, p. 141). Working here he found time to write a book, but also received inspiration and confirmation of his views in the work of Otto Banks, who put emphasis on the importance of the humanity of
Moral Dilemmas and Moral Reasoning The incorporation of morals, beliefs when faced with dilemmas have a profound effect on the decision made and judgments of an individual. Moral development is greatly influenced by preconceived judgments, gathered mainly through cultural experiences. Kohlberg based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of children (Cherrie, 2012). Scenarios of moral dilemmas were presented and participants were later interviewed to determine their reasoning behind their judgments (Cherrie, 2012). Kohlberg was concerned more with reasoning for each participant’s decision rather than their answer (Cherrie, 2012).
He did a study where he told several dilemma stories and asked multiple questions to investigate how people reasoned about moral issues. “He identified three distinct levels of moral reasoning each with two sub stages (http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html).” People may only advance through the stages in order, and once they do their previous form of reasoning is replaced. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is commonly presented as a five level pyramid to show the importance of certain needs, the more priority it has the lower on the pyramid it is. The pyramids presents the idea that certain needs must be met before a person may develop up the pyramid. Kohlberg’s code of moral development and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are examinable in the main characters Sam and Eric, these theories will have an impact in the novel.
Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of personal construct theory’s contribution to our understanding of individual differences in personality. (2000 words). Theories of personality developed in three psychological strands clinical, psychometric and experimental tradition. They were all interested in human behaviour and were mainly concerned with explaining why individual behaved differently to similar situations, and how behaviour could be altered for the good of oneself and society (Butt, 2007). The quantitative psychometric testing and the experimental tradition in which individual difference can be known were the dominant methodologies for many decades.
Piaget broke it down into two stages of cognitive development, whereby Kohlberg has identified six stages on three separate levels of development. (Wagner) Kohlberg went further to dissect and understand the questions he was confronted with in his research as to why and how we think the way we do. It was not enough to simply state how we develop mentally, but why. Kohlberg basically set the tone for Moral Development in Education for many years to come. The three levels of morality have been defined by Kohlberg as pre-conventional, containing the beginning two stages
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987), a professor at Harvard University, began his research as a developmental psychologist in the early 1970s. Kohlberg is most famous for his Theory of Moral Development -based on six stages of moral reasoning. These stages are classified into three levels: Pre-conventional, Conventional and Post-Conventional. Kohlberg aimed to describe the process in which people learn to discriminate from right and wrong and increasingly appreciate moral values. The Pre-Conventional level of moral reasoning is focused on children whose understanding of morality is driven by its direct consequences.
Piaget and Vigotsky: Theory and Practical Applications Educational psychology investigates ways in which psychological principles can be applied to educational contexts, with an aim at enhancing learning and teaching quality (Duchesne, McMaugh, Bochner and Krause 2013 p xviii). While it is important for teachers to understand how to order subject matter and convey it to students, it is equally important that they understand how their students process information, and how students’ minds develop over time. This essay will give an overview of the theories of two of the most influential thinkers in educational psychology: Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. It will go on to discuss some practical applications of these theories by looking at the work done by Michael Shayer in schools in Great Britain. It will be shown that educational psychology has helped create a much greater understanding of how children’s minds develop and that this greater understanding has led to tangible, ‘real world’ strategies for improving the way children are educated.
In addition, the author will expand on the personal theoretical perspective of how she feels her knowledge will contribute to her psychological society. Influence of Diversity To completely understand human nature is to understand the psychological discipline, which evolved from the roots of philosophy. The complexity of this needed more than one specific perspective that later on led to various divisions of development within the discipline. There are 54 subdivisions in the psychological approach that are recognized through the America Psychological Association (APA) today (Cherry, 2012). Some subdivisions include other branches of perspectives of an individual’s behavior; such as environmental psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavior influence the perceptions of human behavior.