It carries energy around the cell to where it’s needed. ATP is synthesised from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) using energy from an energy-releasing reaction e.g the breakdown of glucose in respiration. The energy is stored as chemical energy in the phosphate bond, the enzyme ATP synthase catalyses this reaction. ATP diffuses to the part of the cell that needs energy. Here it’s broken down back into ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
Each of these is converted in a number of steps to pyruvate (another 3-carbon sugar), a process that releases some energy, and a hydrogen atom, which is transferred for use in the respiratory chain by the co-enzyme NAD. The Pyruvate molecules then diffuse into the mitochondrial matrices within the cell. They are then converted to acetyl co-enzyme A (a two-carbon compound) with a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) molecule and a Hydrogen atom (taken up by co-enzyme NAD again) given off. Acetyl Co-enzyme A then enters the Krebs cycle. In this metabolic cycle the 2-carbon acetyl compound dissociates from the co-enzyme A and is converted into a 4-carbon oxaloacetate compound, which in turn is converted into a 6-carbon citrate compound.
The products of this stage are passed down into the next stages. The 2 molecules of pyruvate are passed down to the oxidation of pyruvate, and NADH will be used for the electron transport chain. The rest of the products, 4 ATP, ADP, and P, are used where needed in the cell. After glycolysis occurs, oxidation of pyruvate takes places in the mitochondrial matrix. During this stage,
2nd step: The second step consist of the start point of glycogenesis and it’s a reversible reaction which transform the Glucose -6P to Glucose -1P. The enzymes responsible from this reaction is the Phosphoglucomutase. Glucose -6P Glucose -1P The phosphoglucomutase catalyze the reaction by moving a functional group, here it’s a phosphate group. 3rd step: The third step consist to transform the Glucose -1P to UDP-Glucose. The enzyme responsible is UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase and this reaction consumes UTP.
During respiration glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water. ATP is released during kerb cycle and glycolysis and it is also generated during electron transport chain. ATP is an immediate source of energy for the cells Disaccharide is a double molecule of the monosaccharides that is formed by condensation reaction with removal of water. Examples of disaccharides are: maltose (from two molecules of glucose), sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose). The bonds that are formed between the monosaccharides are called glycosidic bond.
Investigation of the effect of Substrate concentration on Catalase activity Research Question: To investigate enzyme kinetics, using catalase enzyme from the yeast extract. Background Information: Enzymes are proteins which catalyze reactions that take place in the body or they increase the rate of the biological reactions. In an enzyme catalyzed reaction, the substrate binds to the active site and forms the enzyme-substrate complex with the enzyme. The enzyme breaks the bonds present in the substrate; the final product of this reaction leaves the enzyme which remains unchanged after the reaction. Catalase is a substance which is produced by the liver to break down hydrogen peroxide.
The light-dependent reaction consists of changing light energy to chemical energy for the formation of ATP and NADPH. The light-independent reaction use carbon dioxide and the products of ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reaction to form glucose (Sadava et al. 2011). The purpose of this experiment is to determine the various ways the rate of photosynthesis is affected by the chloroplast under different treatments. The indictor DCPIP can determine the rate of photosynthesis.
Then the calvin cycle, happens in the stroma. You take ATP and NADP and CO2 to make sugar. Photosynthesis is a process of taking in light and making sugar as we know glucose. Cellular Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose. Cellular Respiration reaction is C6H12O6+6O2---6CO2+6H2O.