Photosynthesis is the process where light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Its overall equation is: 6CO2 + 6H20 + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2. The process of photosynthesis can be split into two reactions: the light-dependent reaction in the thylakoids and the light-independent reaction in the stroma. During the light-dependent reaction, light energy from the Sun is absorbed by chlorophyll (found in the chloroplasts in the leaf). This causes the excitation of two electrons, and they move to a higher energy level.
According to Hopkins (2006), photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain organisms transform itself from light energy into chemical energy. As a straight forward chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide comes from the air, along with the midair and water from the soil, photosynthesis conglomerates to produce what is known as carbohydrate (p. 6). Solar Energy produced by photosynthesis, stores itself in a chemical bond of a carbohydrate molecule. Sugar known as glucose is then formed which becomes convenient both by way of energy to be stored for later use in tissues or by way of carbon to be used for cells (p.7). Hopkins, w. G. (2006).
During the day, carbon dioxide is released from the organic acids made the night before to become incorporated into sugar in the chloroplasts. C4 plants are plants that preface the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate carbon dioxide into a four-carbon compound, the end product which supplies carbon dioxide for the Calvin cycle. In C4 plants, there are two types of photosynthetic cells which are called bundle-sheath cells and mesophyll cells. In mesophyll cells, the enzyme PEP carboxylase adds carbon dioxide to PEP. A four-carbon compound conveys the atoms of the carbon dioxide into a bundle-sheath by way of plasmodesmata.
The citric acid cycle takes certain compounds that donate protons and electrons to the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain then generates ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Krebs cycle also produces two ATP through the process of substrate phosphorylation. This process occurs in the mitochondria. • What is the role of the electron transport system?
CO2 from the atmosphere diffuses into the leaf through the stomata into the stroma of the chloroplast. In the stroma, the CO2 combines with a 5-carbon compound ribulose bisphosphate (RUBP). Combination of CO2 and RUBP produces two molecules of the 3-carbon glycerate-3-phosphate (GP). ATP and reduced NADP from light dependent reaction are used to reduce activated glycerate -3 -phosphate to triose phosphate (TP). NADP is reformed and goes back to light dependent reaction to be reduced again by accepting more H+ ions.
Glucose is split into two molecules called pyruvate and two ATP molecules are generated per molecule of glucose as well as two molecules of NADH. Also Glucose takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. Without oxygen it is called fermentation with oxygen it is the first stage of the cellular respiration. • What is the role of the citric acid cycle?
When the fuels combust, oxygen and fuels react, and heat released. The water then absorbed the heat from the combustion. In this experiment the calorimeter of energy is used to measure the temperature of the heat that is released from the cashew. The equation to find the energy produce during
Photosynthesis is the process when plants and some bacteria use the sun lights energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. carbon dioxide + water- sunlight- glucose + oxygen Energy in the form of light is the definition of electromagnetic energy. Any visible light like light bulbs, electromagnetic energy can take the form of it. The energy is being absorbed to break bonds making the process endothermic. When energy is being released making new bonds formed is called the exothermic process.
In leaves, photosynthesis involves the photolysis of water, a process that involves the attachment of two electrons to a magnesium ion in chlorophyll and the production of hydrogen ions from the breakdown of water. Together with the electrons, the hydrogen ions are used to reduce NADP in the light-dependent reaction in the thylakoid. The hydrogen
General lighting and red light's wavelengths were favored by chlorophylls which carried out the photosynthesis process. Chlorophylls are green pigments that reflect the green light's wavelength, resulting in the low absorbance of energy and a smaller amount of water displacement, suggesting that green light's wavelength is not efficient for photosynthesis. Overall, there could be modification made towards refining the experiment. For example,