Associate Program Material Cell Energy Worksheet Answer the following questions: Cellular respiration: • What is cellular respiration and what are its three stages? The purpose Cellular respiration is to convert the energy stored in glucose into ATP. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells harvest the energy stored in food that we eat, it is the pathway for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The three stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport. What is the role of glycolysis?
Both ATP and NADPH are responsible for the reduction of glycerate-3-phosphate into triose phosphate, which is converted into many useful organic compounds like carbohydrates, mainly glucose. Although glucose can be used as a direct energy source by plants, it cannot be used directly by animal cells as a source of energy. Instead, cells use ATP as their immediate source of energy. The conversion
“The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed”. (King, R 2012) Energy can be converted into many different forms, such as; chemical energy can be converted into heat energy. Nutrients contain molecules that have high chemical energy potential but are often not available to the body. Chemical energy that is found in the nutrients can also be converted into a useful form of mitochondria, this is cellular respiration. Glucose + Water = Carbon dioxide + Water, the same time, ADP is converted to ATP a high energy unstable molecule.
How is energy produced? Aerobic respiration, during this a respiratory substances, glucose for example is split in the presence of oxygen and releases carbon dioxide and water. Many ATP molecules are produced which then release energy from the glucose. C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O +36ATP Lactate is when glucose is converted during anaerobic respiration; the ATP yield will be low. C6 H12 O6 = 2C3 H6 O3 + 2ATP (lactate) This is a structure of ATP ATP contains sugar which is Ribose, a base which is Adenine and three phosphate groups.
The citric acid cycle takes certain compounds that donate protons and electrons to the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain then generates ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Krebs cycle also produces two ATP through the process of substrate phosphorylation. This process occurs in the mitochondria. • What is the role of the electron transport system?
Once this molecules binds in the Krebs cycle it forms tricarboxylic acid and citric acid. When the coenzymes bind it enter into the electron system. While there ATP is then released as energy throughout the body. B. Compare three features of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
The glucose is dissolved and the body releases it’s built up energy, after this the oxygen is transformed into liquid and atoms from the molecules are discharged as carbon dioxide. They are two major parts required to convert glucose into carbon dioxide and water; those steps are glycolysis and aerobic respiration. During cellular respiration the body main objective from the equation is the energy, so the byproducts are the water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon dioxide is then expelled into blood and carried to the lungs and then exhaled out of the body. The water attached to the blood cells also, but it is eliminated from the body through sweat and urine from the kidneys.
What provides the electron transport chain in cellular respiration with the energy it needs to function? 15. __________________________________________ (a process) Carbon-based molecules from food and oxygen are used to make ATP 16.What are the products of glycolysis? 17. Describe fermentation.
NADP is reformed and goes back to light dependent reaction to be reduced again by accepting more H+ ions. Most triose phosphate molecules are used to regenerate ribulose bisphosphate using ATP from light dependent reaction. This is cyclic as RUBP is reformed to combine with a new CO2
Photosynthesis is the process when plants and some bacteria use the sun lights energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water. carbon dioxide + water- sunlight- glucose + oxygen Energy in the form of light is the definition of electromagnetic energy. Any visible light like light bulbs, electromagnetic energy can take the form of it. The energy is being absorbed to break bonds making the process endothermic. When energy is being released making new bonds formed is called the exothermic process.