The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

717 Words3 Pages
The structure and function of carbohydrates Carbohydrate is an organic molecule which consists of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. The general formula for the carbohydrate is Cn(H₂O)n. Carbohydrates are made up of individual molecules called monomers. These monomers join together by condensation reaction to make a long chain which is called a polymer. Carbohydrates are categorised in three main groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Some examples of carbohydrates are starch which is stored in plants, and glucose which is used in respiration to provide energy to the cells. . Bacteria like all other organisms need carbohydrates as source of energy as well. They need to respire in order to grow in large numbers Monosaccharides consist of one sugar molecule and they are sweet tasting, soluble substances that have the general formula of (CH₂O)n. Glucose, fructose and ribose are examples of monosaccharides. During respiration glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water. ATP is released during kerb cycle and glycolysis and it is also generated during electron transport chain. ATP is an immediate source of energy for the cells Disaccharide is a double molecule of the monosaccharides that is formed by condensation reaction with removal of water. Examples of disaccharides are: maltose (from two molecules of glucose), sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose). The bonds that are formed between the monosaccharides are called glycosidic bond. However the disaccharides can be hydrolysed by adding water to break the glycosidic bonds and release the constituent monosaccharides. The disaccharides are common dietary components of many foods that we eat therefore play an important function in the human diet. Disaccharides are digested by the body in foods and are broken down back into the monosaccharides and then are absorbed

More about The Structure and Function of Carbohydrates

Open Document