The Black community, the bus company, the Montgomery Council, the actions of the NAACP in the Supreme Court and the Civil Rights Movement itself were all significantly affected by this event. Segregation in the Southern states was a major cause of the Montgomery bus boycott. In the South, a practice of “separate but equal” was followed. Southern states took advantage of the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision and started legalising segregation. Segregation was enforced by Jim Crow laws which kept Blacks and Whites separated.
1) Compare and contrast two different black political ideologies. Clearly articulate the objectives and central propositions of each ideology, and be sure to identify at least two black political elites associated with each ideology. Select a contemporary political challenge facing African Americans and identify the divergent solutions that would be advocated by proponents of each ideology you have chosen to compare. Since the early beginnings of racial discrimination whose snow-balling effects continue to distress African-Americans to this day, they have had to establish collective unity in the road to freedom. However, numerous African-American figures view many different roads to freedom, each having contested for dominance within the black community throughout black history.
Southerners continued to marginalize Blacks in their behavior toward ex-slaves and the later African American generation, continuing the escalation of racial tensions through white terror and discriminatory attitudes (Tindall & Shi, 2010, p. 759). Most subversively, southern newspapers propagated stereotypes against African Americans in their coverage and descriptions of constitutional conventions (Logue, 1979, p. 342). Although Radical Reconstruction offered some progress toward social equality after the Civil War, its success was short-lived as African Americans suffered vast disenfranchisement through racist rulings, attitudes, and media representation in the South at the turn of the century. Rulings against African Americans After the Civil War had come to an end, African Americans in the South quickly made use of their new-found political and social rights, employing their right to vote from the Fifteenth Amendment and serving as prominent political figures (Tindall & Shi, 2010, p. 722). However, the formerly fervent commitment to Radical Reconstruction soon dwindled (Tindall & Shi, 2010, p. 739).
According to Davis, slaves and peasants were perceived and subjected to common stereotypes regarding the color of their skin, the customs many of the enslaved peoples had before they were conquered, and how the elite upper classes and literate people looked down on them as a dehumanized object. To support this theory, he looked into the role that color symbolism and how physical appearance had a large impact on this misconception. (Davis 50, 57) Another sample he looked and discussed was Islamic and Christian geographic expansions and conflicts that led to the creation of the term Racism that is linked to historic events involving slavery. (Davis 54, 60) Winthrop argues that Slavery and Racism was created at the same time. He supports this argument by looking closely at the meaning of the symbolism behind the color black.
“Black Like Me” is a shocking piece of literature capable of enticing anyone that dares read it. Now then, allow me to quickly summarize, review, and critique perhaps one of the most powerful mind changing books in human existence. Quickly summarizing “Black Like Me”, John Howard Griffin the narrator of the book is a writer and a resident of the State of Texas. He becomes aware that in order for him or other whites to fully understand the societal disadvantages that accompany being born with black skin he must become a Negro. Mr. Griffin takes the most extreme measure and although well aware of the repercussions that might follow, he decides to alter his skin pigmentation under the direction of a dermatologist.
THE APARTHEID: A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INJUSTICE South Africa is a country afflicted by a past of enforced racism and separation of its multi-racial community. The Europeans of Great Britain invaded the country and imposed a political system known as ‘Apartheid’. This system severely restricted the rights and lifestyle of the non-white inhabitants of the country forcing them to live entirely in separation. This system of imposed racial ideas although now ended, has left an imprint on the thoughts and culture of African descendants worldwide. To be discussed are the affects that this sociopolitical system had on the indigenous peoples of South Africa, as well as the emergence of African independence across the political landscape.
Dubois's philosophy not only shows nihilism in the black race during this era but it also shows the same lack of progression in the black community in 2011. It reminds us of the lack of harmonious solidarity as well as the lack of intellect, high morals and spiritual insight affecting the Black masses today. His piece brings up an array of valid points on why the black community is its own worst enemy when it comes to building a new infrastructure of educational, historical and financial knowledge of self like the Jewish, Asian and Indian cultures. Dubois says “It is the problem of developing the best of this race that they may guide the mass away from the contamination and death of the worst, in their own and other races. Now the training of men is a difficult and intricate task.”(Dubois 1) I personally think that the contamination of most blacks today is from out dated teachings, some churches, politicians and most importantly, the entertainment business.
Acquiring this information has helped me identify the flaws of the American viewpoint on the black community, some of which are still seen today, nearly a century after Hughes first started writing. As a reader, I can identify the various strategies utilized by Hughes and am able to better understand the magnitude of Hughes’ themes about the black culture. Hughes was assailed for his writing on the black community. The lower class community refuted his works, claiming he was stereotypical about his subject matter and disregarded his own heritage and background. More importantly, during the period Hughes’ work was published, we can assume that middle class whites in America and Europe were reading most of his work rather than the stereotype blacks he wrote about.
Another influential novel in America’s political history is Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass. This book was a part of the abolitionist movement during a time period of slavery and inequality of African Americans. This narrative was successful during this struggling time period as it urged people to accept the African American race. Not only did it encourage people to accept the race, but it also encouraged people to cease from slavery. The brutal and harmful details that are described in the novel showed to the nation of how detrimental slavery was on an individual African American.
Where is the Dignity in Slavery? History has a deeper meaning than just facts. The repetition of the same knowledge of history learned is not to make sure that we know the correct dates but to understand why the past and current events happen. There is a psychological meaning to human nature in the past and how it was affected by society, and still is today. Slavery, which was a major uproar from colonial America to the civil war, is the racial epidemic of the enslavement of people for money and cheap labor with extensive abuses.