pGLO Transformation Scientific Report BY : Tom riddle pGLO Transformation Scientific Report BY : Tom riddle Introduction The aim was to conduct an experiment that genetically transformed bacteria with Biorard pGLO plasmid. The pGLO plasmid has ability for the production of the green Fluorcent protein (GFP) (Biorard2000) which is also found in jellyfishes. The experiment conducted was to transform the e-coli bacteria with jellyfish gene that code for green fluorescent protein (GFP). During the experiment procedures were undertaking for the genetic transformation, at the end if done correctly the new developed jellyfish gene in the bacteria will glow under UV light. In this experiment there were main 4 hypothesis made according to each agar plate each with a different types of genes on them.
1) Genetic engineering or genetic modification is the process of altering an organism’s genetic material for a beneficial purpose. Genetic modification is used to improve the products we obtain from plants and animals making them more nutritious, less-harmful manufacturing processes, and production in large quantities making them less expensive. 2) Gene Therapy- when an absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal gene in order to treat a disorder or medical disease Plasmid- small circular DNA molecules in the cytoplasm of bacteria, these molecules cut DNA into a recognizable sequences DNA Polymerase Chain (PCR)- technique used to make copies of a certain gene. Biologists particularly use this with tiny genes that are rarely available. Hybridization- crossing different traits to bring the best of organisms into one.
Motility was noted under the microscope by evidence of the bacteria moving around on the slide. The Simmons citrate test was positive, meaning the agar turned from green to a blue color. So this bacteria utilizes citrate as a carbon source. The lactose testing gave a positive result. MacConkey agar was used to help determine this.
LAB REPORT 1 Finding PROTEINemo Introduction In the vast ocean of proteins one will try to locate an unknown protein amount. Proteins are long chains of amino acids, and critical to the building of various tissues in the body such as muscle, hair, enzymes and antibodies. Proteins have other various important functions in rebuilding and building of the human body. In order to find what a protein is, one needs to looking at peptide bonds. The most effective way to find peptide bonds, which join amino acids to form a protein, is by using Biuret reagent.
Scientists can modify foods to be healthier, adding fats, proteins and sugars to plants so that consumers with a limited income can have a healthy diet. Genetically modifying organisms will benefit the environment too. With traditional farming, farmers spray their crops with herbicides and insecticides around 4
Once feared microorganisms like Staphylococcus epidermises, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are able to be battled with different antibiotics. With many antibiotics being misused, many micro bacteria are becoming immune to once effective drugs. A useful test in measuring the effectiveness of antibiotics to bacteria is the Kirby Bauer test. The Kirby Bauer test is an experiment in which antibiotic soaked disks are placed on a known bacterium, if the bacteria are susceptible to the antibiotic you will see a clearing or halo around the disk; this
It is for this reason that Identification of bacteria is very important in the many areas of microbiology (Singh, 2009). There are many reasons for identifying an unknown bacterium. The reasons range from medical purposes, such as determining if the unknown could cause ailments in living things or knowing what microorganisms are needed to make antibiotics to other purposes such as knowing the exact microorganism has to be used to make certain foods (Burton, 2003). Throughout this report we will be addressing the differences in methods of identifying unknown microorganisms and differentiate between the results of these techniques by explaining how each outcome was achieved. The main aim of these experiments is to determine whether the unknown microorganisms are of Gram-Positive or Gram Negative nature and ultimately to determine exactly what kind on microorganism the unknowns are.
c) Name 2 different methods of measuring pH of substances (in a laboratory)? • Probe and meter • Litmus paper 5. Explain the relationship between the natural pH of the skin and the action of: a) Microflora • The bacterial microflora on our skin are able to survive acidic conditions with a pH range 4-6. Our acidic skin protects us from harmful bacteria or pathogens, our microflora are able to breakdown the fatty acid molecules and thereby increase its
Selective Media Lab Report Introduction Biological media acts as food for the bacteria and allows the growth of bacteria. There are two types growth media, selective media and differential media. Selective media used is when trying to promote the growth of only one bacteria, while differential media is used when trying to distinguish one media from another growing on the same plate. This experiment uses one type of differential media, Blood agar, which is differential for detecting hemolytic activity. Three types of selective media are used: Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol (PEA) are both selective for gram positive agar and Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) is selective for enteric pathogens.
These techniques called immunoassays also allow microbiologists to identify genes that result in resistance to antibiotics and to distinctive identification markers via DNA of the individual isolates for epidemiological tracking. Recognition of newly emerging infectious diseases and control of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and common gram negative bacilli depend heavily on