Plasmid DNA has been recognized as the most powerful tool in molecular cloning because of their simplicity and practicality in propagating foreign genes. In research, plasmid DNA is used as a vector allowing the study and generation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). The bacterial strain used as host in our experiment was GMO endA negative E coli strain. The wild type strain usually contains endA gene, which is responsible for production of endonucleasa I. This protein is part of bacterial antiviral defense mechanism and it can destroy double-stranded DNA.
I. Title: pGLO Transformation Lab II. Purpose; We want to be able to observe, comprehend and analyze genetic transformation as we genetically alter organisms. III. Hypothesis: If bacteria with + pGLO plasmids that are resistant to the antibiotic ampicillin and have the gene for GFP, colonies with survive and grow on the transformation plates that have LB/ amp.
Purpose In this lab we are trying to get a broader understanding of the transformation of bacteria by exposing them to pBLU plasmids. Introduction Transformation is the manipulation of a bacterial cell's DNA in order to alter the cell's genotype or phenotype by absorbing free DNA from its surroundings. This can result in a nonpathogenic bacteria becoming pathogenic by absorbing the DNA of a broken open or dead pathogenic bacteria. In our case it is taking in the pBLU plasmid. A plasmid is a spherical self-replicating DNA molecule that is not actually a part of the bacterial cell but can integrate itself into the bacterial chromosome.
This will be tested using a 2, 6 dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) dye which is coloured in its oxidized form but when it is reduced it will become colourless. The reduction happens when the Krebs cycle produces reducing agents for the reduction to happen. This will help us identify and compare the rate at which these reducing agents are formed under the different condition (Carleton University. 2012). The objective of this lab is to extract mitochondria from an etiolated Mung bean seedling in order to study the metabolic functions of the mitochondria.
Unknown Lab Report: Enterobacter cloacae Jessica Sainvil Professor Cupido Bio 253L1 Thu 9:30-12:30 Due Date: 12/6/12 Unknown#103 Introduction The bacterium Enterobacter cloacae isolated from the given #103 was a Gram-negative Rod. The purpose of this lab was to isolate and identify the genus and species of an unknown bacterium. It is important to identify an unknown microorganism because knowing how the bacteria work and how it is structured means knowing how it can affect humans. Unknown bacteria may also be used clinically many pharmaceutical drugs are based on products made by organisms (Katzung, B.G.2004). In order to identify the unknown organism a series of tests were performed.
Simple and differential Staining of bacteria In previous exercises you have observed live bacteria via compound brightfield microscopy. This approach allows one to observe bacteria in terms of their motility and provides some insight on the organism’s overall morphology. However, since the bacterial cell is transparent and motile and therefore somewhat difficult to observe when using the compound brightfield microscope, cells are often fixed and stained to make them more visible. Staining provides a reliable means for observing bacteria in terms of their relative size, morphology and cellular arrangement. Stains are solutions of a dye that has been dissolved in water or alcohol.
the microbe produces a substance which is antibiotic and is extracted and then chemically altered to better suit the treating of the disease. Microbes are also genetically altered in laboratories to produce antibiotics to suit the needs of the animal which it will be used to treat. This process is carried out by synthetically producing plasmids for the use of transferring useful genetic information from one microbe to another. There are two types of antibiotics used; bacteriocidal and
placed in a spectrophotometer. The data collected was used to view the growth of the bacteria and can be used to compare the growth of this E. coli strain to other E. coli strain, bacteria and the general bacterial growth curve. The data collected can make a template to possibly classify unknown bacteria. Not all bacteria replicate and grow at the same rate. Processes such as gram staining can be used in conjunction with monitoring the growth of a bacteria to further reinforce a hypothesis.
New Jobs for Ancient Chaperones "New Jobs for Ancient Chaperons" by Pramod K. Srivastava. Pg 50, July 2008, Vol 299, Number 1 Heat shock proteins (HSP) are produced in response to stressful conditions including heat. HSPs help cells with coping by keeping cellular processes working smoothly. They play a key role in immune defenses against cancer and other pathogens. HSPs act as chaperones for other proteins and have two objectives: “Inhibit undesirable protein interactions and promote desirable protein interactions in order have stable bonds form between proteins”.
The role of microbes in human health and disease Key terms: Specific | It’s only matched by one other thing | Neutrophils | They are quick and respond to inflammation. They engulf and digest bacterial pathogens | Macrophages | They engulf and digest ‘debris’ | Complement proteins | They make pathogen membranes porous | Lymphocytes | Receptor binding sites | Susceptibility | Lack of resistance or vulnerability to disease | Resistance | The ability to ward off disease through the various defence mechanisms | Eosinophils | A white blood cell containing granules that are readily stained by eosin | Phagocytes | A type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other small cells and particles | Basophil | A basophilic white blood cell | Normal flora is the bacteria which are found on our body on a semi- permanent basis without causing disease. Normal flora is especially important in the large intestine. They are also found in the nose, mouth, on skin and down the throat. The roles of normal flora are to produce compounds which kill other bacteria.