Several more antibiotic were developed in the years following and many emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. The processes by which antibiotics are developed and produced have also been improved over the course of the last 40 years. One of the main processes used to produce antibiotics on a large scale is carried out by growing bacterium which produces useful antibiotics in large vats of liquid microbial cultures. Some antibiotics are semi synthetically produced, i.e. the microbe produces a substance which is antibiotic and is extracted and then chemically altered to better suit the treating of the disease.
This kind of Staphylococcus aureus is called “MRSA”, referred to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This bacteria are multi-resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, meaning that they are resistant to different kinds of antibiotics, such as penicillin, methicillin, dicloxacillin and cephalosporin. As the process goes, that normal Staphylococcus aureus are being killed by penicillin antibiotic, and the ones that are resistant survived and keep on reproducing, Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that is penicillin resistant spread in the community and its amount kept on increasing. This made natural selection to occur, which the bacteria that are antibiotic resistance are suitable ones and they survived in
During a severe infection, these times are often shorter. Neutrophils are the one of the body's main defenses against bacteria. They kill bacteria by actually ingesting them (this is called phagocytosis). Neutrophils can phagocytize five to 20 bacteria in their lifetime. Neutrophils have a multi-lobed, segmented or polymorphonuclear nucleus and so are also called PMNs, polys or segs.
Bacterial infections can usually be treated with anti-biotics however some types of bacteria can form a protective spore which can make them more resistant to heat and chemicals. The requirements for optimum growth are is a temperature of 37c, water, food, time, oxygen/ no oxygen. Common illnesses caused by bacteria are Salmonella, tuberculosis, MRSA, bronchitis, ear infections and tonsillitis. Virus-tend to be smaller than bacteria and in order for the cells to reproduce they need to be in a living host. The common way of treating a virus is through immunization as anti-biotics will not be effective against viral infections.
Chromosomal mutation modifies the enzymes that it targets and forms a bond that tricks the enzyme to believe that it a good enzyme. But, sometimes the mutation is not successful in bonding because the mutation was not strong enough to bond completely. An example of how a pathogen can mutate is streptococcal pharyngitis. Streptococcal pharyngitis is strep throat. Most of the time you are given some sort of “cillin”, like amoxicillin or penicillin, to treat the virus.
As the advancements in new drugs slowed down with the efforts to reduce toxicity of old drugs and alter them to revive resistance-developed drugs, development of new classes of antibiotics trickled to a stop and resistance took on a whole new meaning. As a result, scientists worldwide looked into how bacteria become resistant to drugs, and what factors affect that resistance. We will take an in-depth look at the mechanisms of action of antibiotics, the process of resistance, the effects of human behaviors on resistance and the responsibilities of human kind when using antibiotics to lessen resistance. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics work with the body to cure infections one of two ways: bactericidal antibiotics directly affect the bacteria in a way that leads to cell death, and bacteriostatic antibiotics slow the growth and reproduction of bacteria, enabling the body’s immune system to eradicate the infection. Bactericidal antibiotics include penecillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and quinolones.
| Practical Report | | | | Practical Report Introduction This specific experiment will demonstrate both the efficiency and the disinfecting capabilities of the various disinfectants used and if the experiment is followed correctly the results deemed should be noted that if the substance possess a chemical substances that inhibits the growth of the bacterial culture placed onto the agar (E.Coli) that inhibition zones will be created and we can tabulate and record the observation thus walking away with an understanding of the efficiency of the tested disinfectants used and their success rate. What is known about E.Coli is that it is normally found in food it is a Gram negative, rod shaped bacterium that can help the body break down and assists the body in digestion of food (Dowshen, 2009).Although certain strains of the E.Coli are pathogenic to humans such as the serotype O157:H7, this specific strain of E.Coli is known to cause food poising and can escalate and become life threatening (Nordqvist, 2011). Domestos is chlorine based bleaching agent (Directa, 2009) and is a common household cleaning substance that is used. Handy Andy is a common and popular general house hold cleaner. Dettol is trusted antiseptic and disinfectant and is widely used to fight unwanted bacteria (Thompson D. M.) It has a distinct and characteristic phenolic odour.
Part 1- Dosage (in mg.) a. )Uses for Chloramphenicol The Drug Chloramphenicol, though no longer a commonly prescribed medication, is very successful for the treatment of a wide range of infections. Chloramphenicol is classified as a broad spectrum antibiotic. This medication works well against gram-positive, as well as gram-negative organisms, interfering with the process of protein synthesis, the process essential for bacterial growth Chloramphenicol was once considered the “drug of choice” by physicians, used to treat everything from the simple throat infection to the common flu. This is not the case anymore.
The most common probiotic bacteria come from two groups, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium, although it is important to remember that many other types of bacteria are also classified as probiotics. Each group of bacteria has different species and each species has different strains. This is important to remember because different strains have different benefits for different parts of your body. For example, Lactobacillus casei Shirota has been shown to support the immune system and to help food move through the gut, but Lactobacillus bulgaricus may help relieve symptoms of lactose intolerance, a condition in which people cannot digest the lactose found in most milk and dairy products. In general, not all probiotics are the same, and they don’t all work the same way.
Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Function Acknowledgement: These lecture notes, including figures and schemes, were originally prepared by Professor S.G. Wilkinson. They have been liberally “plagiarised” and modified with permission since I took over the course. Introduction Why study bacterial cells? Many are pathogenic, that is to say agents of disease in man, animals and plants. Although chemotherapy has been spectacularly successful, i.e.