Benthams Utilitarianism Essay

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A) Explain how Bentham's version of utilitarianism can be used to decide the right course of action
Jeremy Bentham was an intellectual philosopher who studied at Oxford which allowed him to qualify as a barrister in London's law courts. He was also the leader of a group called the philosophical radicals who's aims were for liberal reform of important sectors of society e.g. Education and healthcare. Bentham soon came up with Act Utilitarianism which promotes the greatest good for the greatest number. It is unsurprising that Bentham came up with this ideal as he is a hedonist which means that he pushes himself into finding pleasure.
Act Utilitarianism can be explained into three parts. The first is the motivation of human beings. Bentham concludes that human beings are motivated by pleasure and thus want to avoid pain which henceforth affects our choice of action. An example of this could be avoiding to do work because free time brings pleasure but doing work causes boredom which then causes pain. Bentham states how we make our own decisions using the outcome of pleasure as something to strive for and by doing so we should also be striving for the greatest good for the greatest number which can increase pleasure in the world.
Secondly, the principle of utility is the part which follows the motivation of human beings. Bentham developed the principle of utility to state how the right or wrong actions can be determined by its usefulness. The usefulness relates to the extent of the greatest amount of happiness which someone can bring to themselves. Bentham believes that an act is right if it brings the greatest good for the greatest number. In this case good means pleasure or happiness or the absence of pain. The greatest number means the majority of people hence Bentham's theory can be described as democratic views.
The last part is the hedonic calculus which

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