I believe this is the most effective way of encouraging others. Letting others know you care. Acknowledge what’s important to myself and others. A simple thank you lets others know what they have done is worthwhile and meaningful to me. I encourage others to respond with something unexpected.
Reward/need satisfaction theory suggests that we become attracted to people who evoke positive feelings as they provide direct reinforcement through operant conditioning. These rewarding stimuli can include happiness or security. According to the principles of operant conditioning, we are likely to repeat any behav that leads to a desirable outcome. This is because if the presence of an individual leads to this outcome, they will be perceived as more attractive. We also become attracted to people who are associated with positive events through classical conditioning.
As a result of a need for positive regard from others the client can modify their behaviour. A client that may have been raised under oppressive conditions of worth would have learnt that their behaviour is only valued when it is agreeable to the expectations of significant others. if the counsellor can deliver unconditional positive regard accurately it can directly diminish such conditions of worth. Counselling is not the same as our daily lives, the challenge to the Person-centred counsellor is
Everyone has the desire to seek approval and acceptance, Positive reinforcement is the process whereby desirable behaviour is encouraged by presenting a reward at the time of occurrence of such behaviour. Through reinforcing positive behaviour you are encouraging that individual to seek attention through positive methods rather than unacceptable methods (such as challenging behaviour). Also by focusing on prompting positive behaviour can also have the effect on yourself rather than feeling angry and frustrated due to behaviours you promote that calm, relaxed positive behaviour. 2.6 Evaluate the impact on an individual’s wellbeing of using reactive rather than proactive strategies. Using reactive rather than proactive concentrates on the negatives of a behaviour rather than positivity, this would more than likely cause animosity towards staff, emotions would be high for a majority of the time and the individual could become distressed for large periods of time, the support from staff would not be positive making the individual feel isolated and alone, causing more anger and more than likely more behaviours.
Self-Esteem and Happiness Happiness is a subject that arises in many philosophical writings and discussions. There are many theories regarding where happiness comes from, what happiness is, how happiness is achieved, and an infinitum of other related subjects. In his writings, Hume expresses several of his opinions regarding happiness and the requirements needed to achieve happiness. Hume suggests that there are a set of virtues that are crucial to the achievement of happiness, and one such quality is “self-esteem”. When understood properly, Hume’s idea that happiness is only achievable when one has self-esteem is a majorly true theory.
Reward/need satisfaction (Byrne and Clore, 1979) claims that if a person’s behaviour is seen to be rewarding to an individual then they are likely to find this person attractive and ultimately it becomes more likely that a relationship will begin to develop, on the other hand, if the individual gains no rewards then a formation of any kind of relationship is unlikely to occur. This theory was developed further by introducing the behaviourist approach of classical conditioning (Pavlov 1927) and operant conditioning (skinner, 1904-1990). Classical conditioning occurs when an individual associates positive events with certain people, this could suggest that an individual is more likely to be attracted to another if they are in a good mood, or at an enjoyable event. This suggests that classical conditioning may in fact play an important role in interpersonal relationships. Operant conditioning could also play a major part, when a stimulus that is rewarding instigates a positive feeling within an individual.
The definition of happiness can vary vastly between individuals, from buying a new car, to having a family, to leading a virtuous life or meditating in the mountains. For each of us, what makes us happy will define what we think happiness is. Philosophers battle with the same problem, for whatever they define as happiness will ultimately define what they perceive to be the perfect theory of happiness. Haybron (2001) states that there are two main types of happiness that are usually referred to in philosophical texts. Happiness in the first sense, requires nothing more than to feel happy, or to be in a happy mood, and is often referred to as psychological happiness.
Another factor affecting helping behavior could be personal influences such as feelings and mood. If the person feels guilty for not doing something, they will most likely do whatever it takes to be able to restore a positive view from others and reduce our own personal guilt. When someone is in a happy mood, they are more likely to help others to retain that good feeling of what helping others can do, regardless of what made them happy. Most importantly, situational factors such as interpreting and noticing the situation as one that needs help then taking responsibility for helping play a significant role in altruistic behavior. Sometimes, pro-social and
Brave New World Universal happiness is the key to stability, and in the novel Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, the World State ensures its citizens get exactly what they want, all the time, “Community, Identity, Stability” (1). The citizens of this world seem to be genuinely happy due to ignorance and blindness. This reoccurring theme is important because it emphasizes the idea that happiness and truth cannot coexist. The World State begins at making people happy right from birth, or more “creation”. They genetically tamper with embryos depending on what caste they are destined to be in.
The formation of Romantic Relationships According to the reward/need satisfaction theory mutual attraction occurs when each partner meets the unmet needs of the other person. One partner may have the need for love and the other for financial security. Rewarding stimuli produces positive feelings and a negative stimulus creates negative feelings. Given that the stimuli are other people, it follows that the some people make us happy and some do not. According the principles of operant conditioning, we are likely to repeat behaviours that produce a desirable outcome and avoid behaviours that do not.
When any action is done, it may have a right outcome which leads to happiness or a wrong outcome which produces pain. Therefore, this principle significantly determines the total joy of the world in general. The nature of human beings is governed by two key elements of pain and happiness. All human doings are inspired by the need to have pleasure or prevent pain. The principle of utility also advocates that, the correctness or incorrectness of a deed is dependent on the ability for the action to lead to joy or sadness.
Mark Twain said “Success is counted sweetest by those who never succeed, to comprehend a nectar requires the sorest need.” In other words, success can only truly be defined and when there is suffering, a tragedy or a serious deficiency of a desire. When there is hope in disparity present, success is the feeling of that disparity being evolved into a dream fulfilled and realized. (Buchner, 2011) Second, the meaning of success is all too often centered on individual success however, according to the text Diversity Consciousness it holds far more value to the wider perspective which includes the environment, which shape your thoughts and actions. These social forces are all around us and them define our perception of success. Some say the weight of success can be found in the failures encountered, whereby, the thought of taking chances in the midst of trial and error allows one to know what not to do and therefore allowing the opportunity for one to discover what can be done (Buchner, 2011) In the text Diversity
Our government does have the responsibility of allowing us to pursue happiness, but whether or not we attain happiness is ultimately up to every individual. For some happiness is innate and for others it is situational. Mosley goes on to define happiness as “a state of mind cultivated under a sophisticated understanding of a rapidly changing world” (Mosley 88). The world we live in today moves at a much faster pace than it did when our forefathers penned the Declaration of Independence. I would agree with Mosley that happiness is a state of mind, but isn't being content with all aspects of our lives what truly brings us happiness?
What is present holds our attention. What is to come is contained in our hopes, and expectations. With one certain dream, one has the reason to work hard during the pursuit of success. "The Pursuit of Happiness" -- the title comes from a misspelled schoolhouse mural -- has a lot on its mind but mostly this: If America is about the promise of bettering oneself, why does it have to be so freaking hard? In the movie, Jefferson's Declaration of Independence words about happiness kept recurring to Chris Gardner.
This chapter also talks about how a person can increase hope and optimism in his or her life; this consists of recognizing and then disputing pessimistic thoughts. Once we target the pessimistic thought we argue against it with the ABCDE model. Adversity, Belief, Consequences, Disputation, and Energization, this model helps you to learn to argue with yourself. You analyze the problem or situation, then you think what is it that you believe is making it a bad experience, and the consequences that it will bring, then you take the facts and dispute the bad situation, finally you think about what you can do to make it better and turn it into a good situation. I believe that arguing with yourself can help you
Therefor happiness will be experienced throughout different degrees and situations. Moreover Ben-Shahar points out that there is not a perfect recipe to happiness, but that contrast among feelings and having something to reach, to motivate yourself into, are some answers that will bring you closer to the phenomenon of happiness. In text two, “Happiness” filmmaker Michael Chrichton takes us one step closer to the answer; what is happiness? According to Chrichton the feeling occurs when we are not paying attention to it. It will occur while thinking of something that have already happened and it is not going to be material stuff but the people and the value within this.
What I need to be successful What do I need to be successful in this class? First, I need to really know what the meaning of success is in general and what success means to me personally. The dictionary defines success as: “the accomplishment of an aim or purpose.” Every individual will have a different meaning of what success is to them. It may be to have a lot of money, be famous, have power, be admired, drive a certain type of car. Others might have more simple ideas of success like having a family, being able to work, being able to walk, or being truly loved.
Is it the fact that we do not know for sure what it is? Or is it the interest in the obsessing nature of love? The individual view that I take is that we are constantly searching for the unknown. However, it is a familiar unknown, as most of us are experiencing love in one form or another - lasting family ties, friends to cherish, pets that you cannot bear to part with when you leave home for Concord...And yet, we are still searching. Maybe, we can blame it on pop culture, singing its praises for love and serenading us with the melancholic excitement of unrequited love.
Byrne et als model of relationship formation suggests that we find relationships rewarding in some form or that in the absence of relationships we find life unpleasant and unrewarding. This theory is based on the principles of Classical and Operant conditioning. Through operant conditioning people may reward us directly by meeting our psychological needs. Individuals that are helpful, cheerful, attentive and supportive may also provide this direct reinforcement and therefore are liked more. Alternatively we may be rewarded indirectly through classical conditioning as relationships with some individuals may provide pleasant circumstances or pleasant events occur around them.