The Reward-Need Satisfaction theory was first introduced by Byrne and Clore. It refers to the formation of relationships using the behaviour conditioning of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when the individual forms a relationship due to association of positive events to a neutral stimuli being the other individual as the positive event had caused positive feelings, they feel the positive feelings when they see the individual, being the reward. Operant conditioning is when the individual seeks to gain positive reinforcement such as the reward and avoid punishment. Byrne and Clore said the balance of feelings was crucial in formation of relationships.
Describe and evaluate two or more theories of the formation of romantic relationships (9 marks + 16 marks) January 2011 One theory that outlines the formation of relationships is the reward/ need satisfaction theory that was developed by Byrne and Clore (1970). The theory suggests that we form a relationship because the presence of a particular individual is associated with reinforcement. This is because rewarding stimuli creates positive feelings and these stimuli may be people. These people therefore make us happy, so, due to operant conditioning, we seek to adopt behaviours that lead to a desirable outcome and avoid those that lead to an undesirable outcome. Therefore, the presence of an individual produces positive reinforcement as they have a more attractive appeal.
Aside from abstract thinking, reason has a behavioral component. For example, if your friends with a group of people you think may get you in to trouble you will probably change your behavior in order to distance yourself from them. Healthy emotional development, also referred to as emotional intelligence is positively related to abstract reasoning ability. Emotional intelligence is “the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feeling when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Influencing type emotions usually have a positive effect on us and help us make better decisions.
Byrne and Clore (1970) proposed the reward/need satisfaction model. According to this model, we form relationships with people simply because we find them rewarding, It is suggested that we are rewarded in two ways: operant conditioning (through direct reinforcement) and classical conditioning (through association). Argyle (1992) suggests individuals who are rewarding are liked the most. An example of positive reinforcement may be through non-verbal signals such as smiling; this is a sign of liking. We may also be negatively reinforced by an individual helping us in our ‘time of need’.
Outline and evaluate one theory on the formation of relationships One theory on the formation of relationships is called ‘the reinforcement affect model’ from Byrne and Clore (1970). It refers to the ability of another person to reward or punish us directly (operant conditioning) or to become associated with reward or punishment (classical conditioning). The affect part of the model refers to the emotions that arise in us as a result of that reinforcement. The model suggests that we enter a relationship because the other person is positively reinforcing (i.e. they create positive feelings in side us) which makes them more attractive to us, or alternatively takes away negative feelings inside us (such as unhappiness) by making us laugh when
filters like, religion, class, gender, caring or ambitious). Another theorist, Cardwell, M et al. (2004) recognized various factors involved in the filtering process: proximity, similarity, physical attractiveness, complementarity of needs and competence. People narrow down the people whom they may form a relationship with, through a series of selection filters. In initial attraction, proximity is the obvious filter (e.g.
Individuals with this score are pragmatic with a wide range of interests and are able to excel at those things that are deemed rewarding. An interesting finding for a medium score for this style was that a positive outlook for the future is not typically matched by substantive steps to achieving professional development. Achievement Style People who score in the high range on this style tend to feel positively challenged by the tasks that confront them. High scores on the achievement style reflect a belief that even intractable things can be changed for the better and that it is worth taking calculated risks to do so. People with this score tend to approach problems in a methodical manner that maximizes their chances for success.
According to Bandura, “seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers beliefs they too possess the capabilities master comparable activities to succeed” (Bandura, 1994). Bandura asserts people could be persuaded to believe they have the skills and capabilities to succeed and getting verbal encouragement from others helps people overcome self-doubt and focus on giving their best effort to the task at hand. Our own responses and emotional reactions to situations also play an important role in self-efficacy. Moods, emotional states, physical reactions, and stress levels can all impact how a person feels about their personal abilities in a particular situation. For example, a person who becomes extremely nervous before speaking in public may develop a weak sense of self-efficacy in these situations.
They must then enable how they will enact these behaviours in their mind and believe that they have a similar ability to the model to be able to have the same effect as the model. Behavior is more likely to be reinforced if the model has resulted in rewards and steers clear of punishments, and the model has a desirable power. The model tends to be similar to the observer, to increase the self efficacy and the behavior that would be imitated wouldn’t be too hard to the individual to imitate due to this similarity. There are two different types if reinforcement that would encourage the individual to imitate the action, direct and indirect. Direct reinforcement is if the individual directly receives the rewards and indirectly is if the individual observes someone else receiving reward.
Chapter 8: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience - Social influence o Changes in behaviour caused by other people - Conforming behaviour occurs for two principal reasons: o Informational influence • When people are influence by others because of a desire to be correct and to obtain valid information • Reflects that people often rely on others as a source of information o Normative influence • When people are influenced by others to gain reward or to avoid punishment • Disagree with others judgments or beliefs, but proceed in an attempt to be liked or avoid conflict - These can occur simultaneously - We often want to please other people (normative influence) whose judgments we seek (informational influence) Conformity o Most