The principle of utility also advocates that, the correctness or incorrectness of a deed is dependent on the ability for the action to lead to joy or sadness. If an action aims at supporting pleasure and preventing pain, then it rhymes to this principle, and it is morally right. On the contrary, if it does not aim at promoting happiness or preventing pain, then it does not match to the principle of utility, and it is morally incorrect. This principle is argued to be the morally correct principle of deeds at all situations. The principle of utility continually states that morally right actions produce happiness for all the affected people whose concerns are involved in the picture.
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) then decided to develop his idea of Utilitarianism from this quote and apply it to all areas of social activity. Bentham was a hedonist believing that pleasure was the chief ‘good’ and that all aspects of life should maximize pleasure and minimize pain and those that did were the most moral acts. He created the principle of utility which established whether an action was good or bad according to the benefits to the majority amount of people. This is sometimes described as ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’ of people making Bentham’s theory quantitative. Bentham said ‘the principle of utility aims to promote happiness which is the supreme ethical value.’ In determining how to measure different amounts of pleasure and deciding on the right and good thing to do Bentham came up with the Hedonistic Calculus.
Happiness Follows from Virtue Epictetus asserted that while there is no inherent problem in seeking material comfort, the only true good thing is virtue because only virtue can be beneficial in all situations; thus virtue would not ever fail to bring happiness. This conclusion follows from the reasoning of the Stoic philosophical tradition, which states that a virtuous and reasoning person would live "according to nature" and seek true happiness from within. Epictetus said that with virtue, people would be able to efficiently live a good life; the only value in material things, such as money, is that the virtuous could use them to further
He defines happiness in terms of this theory as an actuality; the virtues which allow happiness are dynamic-but-stable dispositions which are developed through habituation; and this pleasure in turn is another actuality that compliments the actuality of happy living. Augustine’s primary moral
Aristotle argues that material is what an object consist of and this matter we could not live without. He feels that education is the key and having the experience is good for happiness. Aristotle states that it is important to consider our ethical first principle not merely as a conclusion drawn from certain premises, but also in its relation to the popular opinion (Aristotle, 701). He says how it is important to follow what we believe and because
If the action produces happy and good consequences versus bad, then it’s the morally right action to follow. “But our calculation is not yet over, for the utilitarian principle tells us that in order for the action to be right, it must produce the greatest good for the greatest number of those affected by it.”(De George, page 47) We would need to drill down into almost every person affected by an action to completely render it morally right, the decision would need to produce the greatest amount of good. Ultimately, for Bentham there was no better man. Everyone had the opportunity in creating the greatest amount of happiness and pleasure. In his eyes, men could produce happiness for anyone involved in any
Describe and evaluate the humanistic approach in psychology The humanistic approach contrasts all the other approaches for one simple reason; this is that the humanistic approach believes that we have free will, this is because we are able to make conscious decisions for our self and chose our own path in life, and for example, the behaviourist approach is deterministic, as the environment determines our behaviour. Rogers stated that certain environments are needed in order for a child to achieve their full potential as an adult. Rogers said we need a condition consisting of positive regard. This means knowing that somebody loves you no matter what you do. He said we all need conditional positive regard from our parents, and if we did not receive this is can lead to psychological problems in our future.
He saw that an action had to cause the greatest or purist happiness. Therefore in the situation of war, Mill would think what would cause the best amount of happiness for people. The general rules that he would follow is: what would be the consequences of war? Would everyone be happy with this? Who would have the most happiness (qualitative).
Universalism is where people should uphold certain values, such honesty as well as other values that society needs in order to function correctly. Universal principles may be powerful and useful, however what people say, hope, or think they would do is often now what is actually done in the long run. Egoism is acceptable behavior which maximizes benefits for an individual “doing the right thing,’ the focus of moral philosophy is defined by egoism as “do the act that promotes the greatest good for oneself” (mhhe.com, Ethics and Corporate Responsibility). Utilitarianism, unlike egoism, seeks the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Organizations seek the greats good for the largest amount of consumers they can supply to, increasing their need for product.
This leads Mill and Nietsche to believe that whatever they choose to do with their lives to make them happy, then that is their form of "right." In contrast, Aquinas would be the one to side with Aristotle because both philosophers are aiming towards reaching virtue and happiness in the end. Aquinas believes that law is nothing but reason for the common good, and that,if laws are obeyed, people will be led towards their happiness. This is similar to what Aristotle believes. He believes that people must do good to reach moral excellence (virtue), so if his and Aquinas's theories were combined, humans would reach virtue and happiness all together by obiding by the laws created for