This paper will summarize the difference between andragogy and pedagogy. The premise is that the assumptions behind pedagogy, which in the original Greek means “child conductor,” do not always fit the needs of the adult learner. Andragogy, derived from the Greek word for “adult or man,” provides a better model for the growing number of nontraditional students enrolled in many universities.
"Andragogy is characterized by a problem/project orientation; the use of experienced-based techniques; the facilitation of self-motivation to encourage learning; and, in general, the pivotal role of the learner in acquiring new knowledge or skills" Marshak (1983, p. 81). Marshak discusses “mixed situations" in which both teaching models are used, rightfully or wrongfully, and goes on to cite examples of "nontraditional college programs which must conform to university requirements with respect to examinations, grading and the like..." (p. 81). This approach may violate the pure andragogical model because external evaluations may be imposed and some learning may be dictated, resulting in a case of unmet adult learner needs.
Malcolm Knowles’ (1977) developed the paradigm of andragogy as we know it today (see Table 1). Knowles’ work is described as pivotal in terms of a shift in the educational paradigm. Knowles defined andragogy as “the art and science of helping adults learn” (1980, page 43), and claimed that there were four critical andragogical assumptions of adult learners which differ from the assumptions of pedagogy (Knowles, 1977).
Pedagogy is the more of learning as a teacher. The art of teaching and instructional methods, pedagogy focuses a child-centered learning. More systematic than the Andragogy, pedagogy is also called ‘Critical Pedagogy’ when it involves students which are already adults. Like Andragogy, Pedagogy is problem-centered and focuses on details pertaining to the student’s; background, experience, environment and situation.